Physiology 215: Kelly Worden
Physiology 215: Kelly Worden phys 215
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalynn Jackson on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Physiology: Kelly-Worden Week 1 Aug 22, 2016: Homeostasis -The Levels of Physiology: -From smallest to largest the levels are: -Cells: THE SMALLEST LIVING UNIT -> Tissues: Multiple Cells -> Organs: Multiple Tissues -> Body System: Multiple organs *examples of body systems include the gastrointestinal system, the respiratory system, the urinary system and the circulatory system -The Cell -It is the smallest living unit -It is made up of several different components: this makes the cell the basic unit of life -Every cell is surrounded by a boundary -The boundary is the PLASMA MEMBRANE (it binds the cell) -There is fluid on either side of the plasma membrane (inside and outside the cell) -Fluid inside the cell = intracellular fluid (ICF) -Fluid outside the cell = extracellular fluid (ECF) -Organism -Every organism is extremely complex -an organism is multiple independent entities made up of cells -Organisms can be either single-celled or multicellular -Single-celled organisms include: amoeba, bacteria, yeast, etc. -Multicellular organisms include: dogs, fish, humans, ect. -Cell differentiation -In the beginning of life, we all start out as one cell that later divides so many times that it creates us -As our individual cells multiply, the cell division activates and deactivates certain genes to create us as individuals. -When cells divide they specialize -cells specialize to be different things: organ tissues, blood, etc. *note that a cell must specialize in order to have a function -Basic Cell Functions -obtaining food and oxygen -balance water and nutrients -produce and reproduce proteins -respond (adapt) to changes in the body system -consume nutrients and later expel the waste -divide when needed (not all cells need to do this, but most do) -Specialized Functions within the body -The intestinal tract -Absorb Nutrients within the GI tract -The Pancreas and Stomach -Digest the nutrients consumed -The Kidneys -Reabsorption and removal (secretion) of waste and extra nutrients -The Muscles -Contract (They also produce heat while doing so -The Neurons -Are used for neurotransmission -Level of Organization: The Tissues *Cells with similar functions combine and specialize to tissues -The 4 primary Tissues -Muscle -Nervous -Epithelial -Connective -Muscle Tissue -There are 3 types of Muscle Tissue -Skeletal -Skeletal muscle is used to move the skeleton -It is a striated muscle -Cardiac -This muscle is only in the heart -It is used to pump blood -It is a striated muscle -Smooth -This muscle is used to move organs -For example it is used to help move food down in digestion -This is the only smooth muscle -Nervous Tissue -This tissue specializes in sending signals throughout the body -The signals are important for communication, control, and coordination -Epithelial Tissue -This tissue is used in the linings of the organs. -It forms a barrier, lines cavities, and lines the outside (skin) -All substances that enter or leave the body must bass an epithelial barrier -These barriers are Epithelial sheets and secretory glands -Connective Tissue -There are 4 types of connective tissue -Loose -This connects epithelial tissue to an underlying structure -Tendons -This connects bone to muscle -Bone -This gives shape and support to the body -Blood -This transports materials Levels of Organization: Glands *This level is specialized for secretion -Exocrine System -This is for substances into tubes out of the body -Endocrine System -This is for distributing hormones into blood Level of Organization: Organs *An organ is made up of 2 or more types of primary tissue - For example: Stomach -Lined with epithelial tissue -Has connective tissue -Has muscle tissue -Has nervous tissue -Body Systems and organs that play a part -digestive = stomach -circulatory = heart -respiratory = lungs -skeletal = bone -urinary = kidneys -integumentary = skin -immune = thymus, appendix -nervous = brain -endocrine = pancreas, pituitary -reproductive = gonad *It is important to note that organs can belong to multiple body systems -ICF -ICF is intracellular fluid -It is located within the cell -The main cation of ICF is: potassium -ECF -ECF is extracellular fluid -It is located outside the cell -The main cation of ECF is: sodium *PLASMA: is fluid without cells *Interstitial Fluid: is fluid in the tissues between cells -Homeostasis -definition: maintaining a stable environment -Homeostasis is dynamic -It is constantly adjusting -ex: similarly, to the way that homeostasis maintains body temperature; a central air system changes to maintain room temperature. When the temp gets too cold then the heater kicks on to raise the temp (the body shivers to generate heat), then when the room is too hot the air conditioner kicks on to lower the temp (the body sweats to cool down) and when optimal temperature is obtained the heater or conditioner shuts off. -This is known as negative feedback -If homeostasis in interrupted then the body can become ill or die -Regulating Homeostasis -There are different aspects of the human body that contribute to homeostasis, here are a few examples: -The concentration of nutrients *note that we need Vitamin A however if we ingest too much of said Vitamin it becomes a deadly neurotoxin -The concentration of oxygen and carbon -The concentration of waste products -pH change *anywhere between 6.8 and 8.0 is a good pH for the body -The concentration of water, salt, and electrolytes -The temperature -The Volume and Pressure -The Contribution of Body Systems to Homeostasis -Circulatory -This system moves nutrients, waste, hormones, etc around the body -Digestive -This system breaks down food for nutrients and absorbs them *mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines = parts of system *food substances = fat, protein, and carbohydrates -Respiratory -This system obtains oxygen, eliminates carbon, and maintains the pH by eliminating CO2 levels -Urinary -This system reabsorbs nutrients, balances electrolytes (salts), eliminates waste, and helps maintain proper pH -Skeletal -provides support, protection -It’s a reservoir for calcium -It creates blood cells -It stores heavy metals and toxins *Note that without a balanced diet, our bones deteriorate and release those toxins throughout the body -Muscle -This system moves bones, maintains body temperature, provides reflexes to stimulus, moves on voluntary movement commands (you think about doing something ex. Grabbing a cup because you’re thirsty) -Skin -This system is a protective unit, it releases heat to regulate the body temperature as well -Immune -This system creates white blood cells and lymph to defend against foreign invaders, it replaces injured or worn out cells as well, they fight cancer, and uses autoimmunity (especially with disorders and the body attacks oneself) -Nervous -This system controls and coordinates the bodies activities and response to stimulus -Endocrine -This system releases hormones, regulates homeostasis through negative feedback -There is a primary and secondary part to the system -Reproductive -This system is important to the perpetuation of species, however it is not necessary for homeostasis -Homeostasis Control -There are two types of control: intrinsic and extrinsic -Intrinsic control happens within the organs -Extrinsic control is responsible for outside stimulus (nervous and endocrine system) -Negative Feedback -Negative feedback is the end production to shut it off -ex: thermostat -most systems are controlled by this type of feedback -Positive Feedback -Positive feedback is when something increases with release -ex. Childbirth and the release of oxytocin -When Homeostasis is Disrupted -When disruptions occur illness or death can result -Pathophysiology = abnormal function disease August 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology -The Plasma Membrane -This separates the ICF and ECF -This helps maintain the inside of the cell -This allows the entry of food substance into the cell -The Nucleus -It is usually located at the middle of a cell, however it can be towards the side of the cell -It is quite large -It is sheathed by the nuclear envelope to help protect it -DNA and RNA are located within the nuclear envelope -mRNA = messenger RNA -rRNA = ribosomal RNA (RNA site of attachment) -tRNA = transfer/translate RNA *RNA is the first step in making proteins -From DNA to Protein -DNA “unravels” to become RNA -RNA then leaves the nucleus to the endoplasmic reticulum -The RNA attaches to the ER and tRNA translates the RNA strand -Protein is made after translation -Cytoplasm -This is the area within a cell that suspends the orangelles -ex. of organelles = 6 main -ERs, Golgi Complex, Secretory Vesicles, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Peroxisomes, -Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) -There are two types of ER -Rough ER -has lots of ribosomes on it -It synthesizes proteins and lipids -Anything with a membrane requires the rough ER -Smooth ER -It has no ribosomes -It is used to hold on to things -Can be separate or continuous with the rough ER -It’s used for more packing than synthesis -It depends on the cell type = different roles for this ER -Free Ribosomes -2ndsite of protein synthesis -made for cytosolic proteins -Golgi Complex -This organelle is located the furthest from the nucleus -It receives transport vesicles -It sorts out the vesicles received -It sends the received vesicle out to where it belongs -It is also a site of production for other organelles -Secretory Vesicles -These bud off of the golgi complex -They concentrate hormones and neurotransmitters and take them to cell membrane -Lysosomes -They contain hydrolytic enzymes -They bud off of the Golgi Complex -They break down organic molecules *This is basically the stomach of a cell -They have stages of a life cycle -Endocytosis -This is the act of bringing something into the cell -There are three types of endocytosis -Phagocytosis: “eating” ex: amoeba eating bacteria -Pinocytosis: “drinking” -Receptor Mediated: You need receptors to be brought in -Peroxisomes -This is the detox center of the cell -It produces hydrogen peroxide and then converts it into H2O and O2 -It breaks down fat -It self replicates -Mitochondria -POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL -It has its own DNA -It has a double membrane -inner membrane -cristae: e- transport -matrix: citric acid cycle -outer membrane -Glycolysis -You start with 1 molecule of glucose -10 Steps occur -You receive 2 pyruvate molecules 2 ATP and 2 NADH -Pyruvate is then converted to acetyl CoA -Pyruvate becomes matric acetic acid -Acetic acide combines with Coenzyme A (CoA) -Acetyl CoA is created -Acetyl CoA joins the citric acid cycle (aka Krebs Cycle) -Citric Acid Cycle *each pyruvate becomes 1 Acetyl CoA = 1 ATP *you breathe to make ATP & get rid of waste -Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic Acid = citric acid & CoA -OH group changes position = isocitric acid isocitric acid – CO2 + H = alpha-ketoglutarate & CO2 & NADH -alpha-ketoglutarate – CO2 + H = succinyl-CoA -succinyl-CoA – 2H = fumarate -fumarate + H +OH = malate -malate – H = oxaloacetic acid & NADH *you’ll notice we ended where we began and move on to the electron (e-) transport chain -Electron (e-) Transport Chain -higher energy e- moves to lower energy areas -hydrogen builds up and moves back across the membrane -hydrogen doesn’t want to be charged all by itself so it combines to make H2O from gaseous O -32 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose is created TOTAL -Aerobic: -oxygen is required -includes the citric acid cycle and e- transport chain -creates 30 ATP -Anaroabic -no oxygen present -includes glycolysis -creates 2 ATP *30 + 2 = 32 ATP total created *note that red blood cells rely on glycolysis since they transport oxygen throughout the blood, this means they can only live for 120 days.
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