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Psychology Chapter 1 Notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Psychology Chapter 1 Notes PY 105

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > PY 105 > Psychology Chapter 1 Notes
Meghan Skiba

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Chapter 1 notes of Honors Intro to Psychology- Important people and key terms
Honors Intro Psychology
Katy Lauren Ford
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 105 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Katy Lauren Ford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Honors Psychology August 23, 2016 Psychological Science: The study through the research of the mind, brain, and behavior Amiable Skepticism: Combines openness and wariness open to new ideas; wary of scientific findings lacking support Critical Thinking: Systematically weigh information to question and evaluate information using supported evidence Looks for holes in evidence logic reasoning Thomas Gilovich: “How We Know What Isn’t So: The Fallibility of Human Reason In Everyday Life” (1991) extrasensory perception (ESP) Major Biases Ignoring Evidence Failing to accurately judge source credibility Misunderstanding/ Not using statistics Seeing relationships that don’t exist Using relative comparisons Accepting after the fact explanations Taking mental shortcuts Failing to notice our own inadequacies Scientific Foundations of Psychology Culture: beliefs, values, rules, norms, and customs between people of the same language and environment Nature/Nurture: both nature AND nurture dynamically interact in human psychological development Mind/Body: “Are the mind and body separate and distinct, OR is the mind the subjective experience of ongoing brain activity?” Leonardo daVinci: Sensus communis Rene Descartes: dualism mind and body are separate but intertwined Introspection (Wilhelm Wundt) a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts Structuralism (Edward Titchener) conscious experience can be broken down into basic underlying components Stream of Consciousness (William James) ever changing, continuous series of thoughts cannot be frozen in time Darwin evolutionary theory adaptations natural selection Gestalt Theory the whole (of personal experiences) is different from the sum of its parts (constituent elements) perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context Freud believed paralysis was directly affected by psychological factors unconsciousness mental process operating below the level of conscious awareness psychoanalysis bring contents of unconscious mind forward to conscious mind John B Watson behaviorism emphasizes environmental effects on observable behavior Psychology is natural and counterintuitive birds of a feather flock together BUT opposites attract absence makes the heart grow fonder BUT out of sight, out of mind Critical Thinking Authority is NOT sufficient to prove truth of claims Biases confirmation bias false relationships relative comparisons hindsight bias heuristics (rules that help the brain process information) self-serving bias The History of Psychological Science early days: nature vs. nurture “Are we born with it, or can we change it”? mind-body relationship Wundt: used introspection (“What do you think”?) to standardize exam of human experiences  led to Functionalism: observable outward indicators examples: introspection: what kind of music do you like – answers with music titles functionalism: what kind of music do you like – checks itunes top 25 Behaviorism: beginning of direct observation and experimental manipulation direct observation neuroscience cognitive psychology Women In Psychology Anna Freud: ego psychology, child psychoanalysis Karen Horney: challenged Freud’s ideas about women Mary Ainsworth: attachment theory Mary Chiton Watkins: self psychology Melanie Klein: play therapy Levels of Analysis Cultural  Social  Individual  Biological Psychology As A Science must be empirically obtaining evidence (directly observed, NOT guessed) mind brain behavior Inference making inferences BASED on empirically obtained evidence Psychological Science informs clinical Psychology and… education business medicine Scientific Method (HOMER) Hypothesize Operationalize Measure Evaluate Replicate/revise


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