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BSC 114, Week 1 Notes

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC 114, Week 1 Notes BSC 114

Hannah Tomlinson
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Chemistry, Water, and Carbon
Principles Of Biology I
Kimberly Caldwell
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kimberly Caldwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
8/22 Chapter 2, Day 2 Electrons  Chemical Reactions: exchanging and sharing of electrons between atoms make up a large part of what occurs in living systems  Electron shells hold st -1ndhell: 2 electrons -2 shell: 8 electrons -3 shell: 8 electrons  Valence electrons: electrons in the outermost shell  Inert: completely filled in outer shell so they aren’t involved in chemical reactions  Chemical Bonds are formed between atoms. Types of Bonds  Covalent  Ionic  Hydrogen Covalent  Sharing of a pair of valence electrons between 2 atoms Pure Elements vs. Compounds  O 2nd H ar2 pure elements  Compound: combination of 2 or more different elements  Water is a compound -Oxygen needs to bond with 2 hydrogens in order to satisfy the valence electrons Electronegativity  Attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond  The more electronegative an atom is, the stronger it will pull shared electrons toward itself.  Nonpolar and polar covalent bonds share electrons differently Nonpolar Covalent Bonds  Outcome of tug-of-war is a standoff  2 elements end up being equally electronegative in a bond -Ex. Covalent bond between 2 atoms of the same element -Or covalent bond between carbon and hydrogen  Carbon and Hydrogen are nonpolar covalent. They don’t pull electrons to themselves AKA they are neutral. Polar Covalent Bonds  One atom is more electronegative than the other.  Electrons will NOT be shared equally -Oxygen and Nitrogen are the bullies (they will always take electrons to themselves)  Ex. Water molecule- unequal sharing will cause: -Oxygen to have a partial negative charge -Each hydrogen will have a partial positive charge Ionic Bond  Electrons are transferred  Usually between metals and nonmetals  Actual gain/loss of electrons  Occurs between molecules with opposite charges  An atom strips away an electron from the partner -e.g.: Na+Cl-  Chlorine strips away electron from sodium -Sodium has 11 electrons with only 1 electron on the outer shell -Chlorine has 17 electrons with only 7 electrons on the outer shell  The sodium electron is taken away to complete chlorine -Becomes sodium chloride (NaCl)  Cation: greater positive charge -Ex. Sodium  Anion: greater negative charge -Ex. Chlorine Hydrogen Bonds  Weakest type of bond  Has to involve 2 different molecules -Hydrogen and another molecule  Hydrogen bonding between water molecules -The oxygen in water has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen has a slight positive charge. 8/24 Chapter 3: Water  Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with one another.  Hydrogen bonds are weak; constantly being broken and reformed  When water is frozen, it increases in volume and becomes less dense when frozen.  Water is an excellent solvent.  Solvent: the dissolving agent of solutions  Solution: a liquid that is homogeneous mix of 2 positive substances  Solute: substance that is dissolved  Water is a primary solvent in cells  Hydrogen(+) reacts with chlorine(-)  Not everything dissolves in water  In order to dissolve in water, must be ionic or polar  Hydrophilic: water loving(polar)  Hydrophobic: does not love water -Substance that is nonpolar and will not dissolve readily in water(oils and fats) -Elements that do not love water: carbon, hydrogen, and methane  Dissociation of water molecules -Occasionally a hydrogen atom shared between 2 water molecules in a hydrogen bond shifts from one molecule to another -The hydrogen atom leaves electrons behind and a single proton, w/charge of one positive is transferred; called a hydrogen ion -One that loses molecules is hydroxide ion(-OH)  In pure water, H+=OH- -If [H+]>[OH-], the solution is acidic -If [H+]>[OH-], the solution is basic(alkaline) -Degree of acidity of a solution is commonly given as pH  pH: measure of concentration of hydrogen ions -7 is neutral -pH of 0-6 is acidic  1 is more acidic than 5 -pH of 8-14 is basic  13 is more basic than 8 -As H+ increases, pH decreases  Rain -Normal rain: pH of 5.6 -Acid rain: pH of 4-4.5  Cause of acid rain: burning of fossil fuels  Effects of acid rain: lowers pH in bodies of water 8/26 Chapter 4-Carbon Why is carbon important?  Most chemicals that make up living organisms are based on the element carbon.  It has 6 electrons; 4 are in the valence shell (tetravalence)  Basically everything(living) is carbon-based  It doesn’t usually form ionic bonds, so it would need to either gain 4 electrons or lose 4 electrons.  It tends to share electrons with other atoms in 4 covalent bonds Carbon Structure-chains  Forms skeletons of most organic molecules  Varies in length, could be straight, branched, or arranged in close rings  Some have double bonds  Variations in carbon structures provide molecular diversity  Atoms of other elements can be bonded to the skeletons at available sites Hydrocarbons  Organic molecules made of hydrogen and carbon  Major components of petroleum; fossil fuels  NOT prevalent in living organisms  Many of a cell’s organic molecules have regions consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Isomers  Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and different properties -e.g.-Butane. Both have the formula C H 4 10but they differ in covalent arrangement of carbon skeleton 3 Types of Isomers -Structural -Enantiomers -Geometric Structural  Differ in covalent arrangements of atoms  # of possible isomers increases as carbon skeleton increases in size Enantiomers  3D  Mirror images of each other  Cells can distinguish these isomers based on different shapes  Usually one isomer is biologically active and the other is inactive Geometric  Always involves a double bond  All have the same covalent partnership but differ in their spatial arrangements  Double bonded carbons don’t allow atoms they join to rotate freely about bonded axis Molecules attached to carbon  Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend on arrangement of carbon skeletons and molecular components attached to the skeleton. Function groups  Replaces one or more hydrogens bonded to the carbon skeleton of the hydrocarbon 7 functional groups most important in the chemistry of life  1-6 are hydrophilic and increase solubility of organic compounds in water 1. Hydroxyl 2. Carbonyl 3. Carboxyl 4. Amino 5. Sulfhydryl 6. Phosphate 7. Methyl(not reactive like 1-6, but is a tag that attaches to biological molecules) Hydroxyl group  Found in alcohols  Polar covalent bonds which helps alcohol dissolve in water  Often ends is –ol (e.g. retinol, cholesterol)  MUST have OH Carbonyl group  Found at the end of carbon skeletons(aldehyde)  Found within a skeleton(ketone) Carboxyl  Found in carboxylic acids  The hydrogen in this group can be dissociate, it makes molecules a weak acid Amino group  Can accept H+  Acts as base  Can accept H+ and will then be –NH + 3 Sulfhydryl group  Helps stabilize structure of some proteins  Often forms disulfide bridges, which are really strong covalent bonds Phosphate group  Can bond to a carbon skeleton by one of its oxygen atoms  Has important role in transfer of cellular energy (ATP) Methyl group  -CH 3  Addition of a methyl group to DNA affects the expression of genes  Arrangement of methyl groups in sex hormones affects their shape and function


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