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Week 1-Lecture Notes

by: Taylor Cook

Week 1-Lecture Notes Hist 1010 - 003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Hist 1010 - 003 > Week 1 Lecture Notes
Taylor Cook
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About this Document

These notes cover the introduction and the entirety of chapter 1. It also consists of the chapter vocabulary and study questions for extra practice.
World history 1
Daniel F. Giblin
Class Notes
evolution, Civilizations, agriculture




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Cook on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel F. Giblin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Chapter 1 CHRONOLOGY OF HUMAN HISTORY Paleolithic : BP=Before Present First Humanoids – 6 million years BP First Stone Tools – 2.3 million years BP Fire – 400k-800k BP Spear – 400k BP Modern Humans appear –300k BP Hunting - NET 1.75 Million, perhaps 60k-80k BP Late Paleolithic 35k-14k BP: stone spear points, atlal, Epipaleolithic, early Neolithic 14k-10k BP, cave paintings, bow, sling, dagger, mace EARLY HUMANS AND VIOLENCE  Fight or flight; is organized violence a learned behavior? Is aggression innate or acquired? Ex: wolves and chimpanzees pack mentality.  Survival of the fittest.  Genes and culture coincide. Genetics is expressed through the developmental influence of what cultural organisms learn. Products of bio evolution and sociological evolution.  Cultures are adapted and the most developed culture will continue on.  If violence is innate, it supports social Darwinism. THREE THEORIES 1) Man, the hunter: had hunting adapted us to be aggressive and to succeed and thus cause war? o Hunting comes first. o Archeologists argue that hunting began somewhat 2 million years ago. Some say 60-80k years ago. This is not enough for the biological evolution. o Chimpanzee, the hunter: share 98.8% of the same DNA as humans. Successful hunters. Animals within the same ecological niche are at the most risk. Apes live depending on the reproductive advantage. More territory means bigger population.  The need to hunt makes us aggressive. Aggressiveness exists within the need to hunt, making war a plausible solution. 2) Man, the hunted: for millions of years, hominoids acted as prey before they learned to hunt. o Protected themselves by living in large groups of 25-75. o Versatile locomotion (get up and leave at the drop of a hat). o Flexible social organizations. o Unlike some mammals, there were multiple men in the groups. o Males can be sentinels (soldier or guard set up to keep watch). o Carefully selected sleeping cites. o Intelligence and “one up-manship.” (Religion may have been adapted to create sacrifice for survival) 3) Man, the competitor: human competition drives us largely but not entirely o Ambush and success in numbers. o Women were genetically “expensive” while men were replaceable. o Groups needed to stay mobile (nomads). o If biological advantage is not in play, they used other tactics. Ex: technology. ALTRUISTIC COOPERATION: increased group size, taking actions to benefit another person. - Species do not evolve. Individuals evolve and the most dominant individuals pass on traits therefore the dominant traits become that of the species. - Individuals within a group cooperate in order to protect the survival of their own close relatives. - Violent conflict favored behavior. Male solidarity. Incorporate other people from other groups. Check the risk calculations and threat assessment. - Greater social complexity in larger group sizes. - Cultural feedback loop: biological capacity and larger group size. - More resources needed the larger the group is. - Not always fighting but always ready to fight minimizes risk of attack. Conditioned violence happens where there is reduced risk of violence. Weapons dramatically increased lethality. Neolithic:  Everything begins in the near east; Jericho, catalhoyuk, hacilar. 12,000-10,000 BCE: Jebel Sahara burial site in Sudan showed evidence of the of settlements. Wave 1 of migration – 1.5-1.8 million humans moved out of Africa (they evolved into Neanderthals) There were behavioral characteristics shared by three groups of humans: 1. Same tools. 2. Used fire. 3. Large game hunting and gathering. 4. No fishing. 5. Did not use bone, ivory, or shell. 6. No settlements. Humans migrated to the southeast because of an ice age. ACCELERATED COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: o Diversified tools and materials. o Distant sourcing for materials. o Ornamentation. o Likely developed new stage of language. o Larger groups of humans found. Homo sapiens (modern humans) began to largely outnumber Neanderthals. Artistic, skeletal, and archeological evidence has shown evidence of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans. -Early humans expressed themselves through art and language. Food production began soon after about 12,000 years. What makes us human: - Bipedalism: hominids come down from the trees in Africa, become upright, and walk on two legs. - Big Brains: Ancestors to modern humans make tools and fire and acquire larger brains. - Language: Humans learn to communicate wit one another, develop a sense of self, and produce art. - Village Life: People domesticate plants and animals and settle in villages. KEY TERMS Atlal: increases distance. Helps you launch a spear or a small weapon. Adaption: ability to altar behavior and to innovate, finding new ways of doing things. Austalopithecines: African apes walking on two legs. Bipedalism: “two-footed” humans standing upright. Cognitive skills: increased powers of observation and memory. Domesticate: bring under human control. Evolution: process by which different species adapted in response to changing environments. Hominoids: modern day humans after a long evolutionary process. Homo erectus: “standing man” Homo habilis: “skillful man” Homo sapiens: bigger brained, more dexterous, more agile species of humans. Hunting and gathering: hunted and scavenged for food. Innovation: learning or storing lessons so humans can pass them on to offspring, like tools or efficient resources. Language: use of sound to make words that when strung together display a complex meaning. Migration: response to environmental changes shifting the humans to other locations. Pastoralism: the herding of domesticated animals. Settled agriculture: the application of human labor and tools for to a fixed plot of land for more than one growing cycle of a crop. Species: groups of animals or plants possessing one or more distinct characteristic. STUDY QUESTIONS 1) Explain how evolutionary biologists and archeologists working in recent decades have transformed our understanding of human origins? 2) Describe the evolutionary process through which Homo sapiens emerged. Was it a linear progression? 3) Identify the advantages that language and symbolic art gave Homo sapiens over other species. What can a modern observers learn about early humans by studying their artistic expressions? 4) List the regions where agricultural production first emerged. What common factors in all these places facilitated the domestication of plants and animals? 5) Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of agricultural production versus nomadic foraging. How were agricultural or pastoral communities different from those of hunters and gatherers?


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