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Phil 2010 Week 1 notes

by: Marcia Nascimento

Phil 2010 Week 1 notes PHIL 2010 012 (TBA, Introduction to Philosophy

Marcia Nascimento
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About this Document

These notes cover the first chapter of Philosophy
Introduction to Philosophy (2010 012)
Chris Foster
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marcia Nascimento on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 2010 012 (TBA, Introduction to Philosophy at Georgia State University taught by Chris Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy (2010 012) in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 08/28/16
Introduction to Philosophy: Logical Toolkit First of all, let us start off by defining Philosophy. Philosophy by my understanding, is the study of ideas about knowledge, truth, nature and the meaning of life. It can also be defined as a set of ideas on how to do something or how to live. Terminologies in Philosophy: The following are terms in Psychology that we will constantly come across during class and so it is important that we know:  Argument: An argument is a series of statements, where the last statement supposedly follows from, or is supported by the first statement made. The last statement is called the conclusion, and the first statement is referred to as premises. When a statement is presented to us, in which we have to argue upon, our argument will usually conclude whether we agree or disagree with the stamen being made. This should be presented by facts or evidence explaining why we agree or disagree. Here is a simple example: 1. Everyone who has graduated, has a qualification. 2. Kate has a qualification. 3. Therefore, Kate has graduated. In this example, number 1 and 2 are our premises and number 3 is our conclusion. We are not really trying to get technical and try and prove whether Kate has graduated or not. Our conclusion is just based on the premises that we have. A conclusion follows a premise, so we are simply saying that Kate has graduated simply because number 1 states that everyone who has graduated, has a qualification and because number 2 states that she has a qualification. Most articles that we receive in class will not contain arguments easily laid out like this. They will not be numbered, so it is our duty to identify the premises and create a valid conclusion out of it. In the example above, in order for you to reach that conclusion, you would have had to accept the two premises. When you have done that, it is known as a good argument. This is because he conclusion is in agreement with the premises. In order for us to have a good argument, the following points should be considered:  Soundness: In order for our argument to be sound, our arguments must be valid and our premises has to be true. If the premises of the argument are actually true, it is known as being sound. If the premises are not true, it is known as unsound. Remember that an argument may be valid but not sound. E.g. 1. All homeless people live on the streets. 2. Luke is a homeless person. 3. Therefore, Luke lives on the streets. This example is an example of a valid but not sound argument. It is simply valid because the premises of this argument support the conclusion. However, it is not sound because the facts are not technically true. As we all know, not everyone that is homeless lives on the streets, some homeless people have homes to go sleep to but they prefer to be on the streets. NB: The difference between validity and soundness is that for validity, the conclusions follows from premises and for soundness the conclusions are valid and the premises are true.  Persuasiveness In certain cases, you would have to be a bit more convincing for someone to agree with the argument you are giving. For example, how would you convince an atheist that God exists? That would almost be impossible right? In cases like this, we use what is known as a circular argument. E.g. 1. God exists 2. Therefore, God exists. This is known as a circular argument. It is a valid conclusion because the conclusion follows the premises. It is known as circular because the conclusion appears within its premises, so in order for you to agree with the conclusion, you would have to accept the first point which is true according to the premise. This sort of argument is persuasive. Necessary and Sufficient conditions:  A way to understand this simple concept is by also naming it as ‘’If X, then Y” conditions. E.g. If you are a nutritionist then you are a doctor This simply means that being a nutritionist meets the necessary requirements for being a doctor, however, we all know that they are many other types of doctors. Hope that was helpful****


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