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Biology 111 - Week 2 Notes

by: nerdybirdie18

Biology 111 - Week 2 Notes Biology 111

Illinois Central College
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover week 2 and chapter 2 of the text.
Biology of Man
Michael Oliver
Class Notes
Biology, biologyofman, Chemistry, illinoiscentralcollege
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by nerdybirdie18 on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 111 at Illinois Central College taught by Michael Oliver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Biology of Man in Life Science at Illinois Central College.

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Date Created: 08/28/16
Biology 111: The Biology of Man | Michael Oliver ________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life Section 2.1 Atoms Make Up All Matter - Matter: any material that takes up space e.g. Organisms, rocks, oceans, gases - The matter that makes up every object consists of 1 or more elements - Element: a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into other substances. e.g. oxygen (O), carbon (C) - The Periodic Table of Elements: lists all of the known elements - each box contains four (4) pieces of information about its element 1. atomic number: the number of protons in the nucleus 2. elements name 3. elements symbol 4. atomic mass number: the total number protons and neutrons in the nucleus - atomic number subtracted (-) by atomic mass = number of neutrons in the atom - an element has the same number of protons and electrons - all atoms of an element have same number of protons, but not always same number neutrons * - There are 25 elements essential to life - bulk elements: an element that an organism requires in large amounts as they make up the vast majority of every living cell. e.g. carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) = 4 most abundant; phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and Calcium (Ca) - trace elements: an element that an organism requires in small amounts e.g. iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) - organic vs inorganic - organic -----> carbon present - inorganic -----> no carbon present - atom: the smallest possible ‘piece’ of an element that retains the characteristics of the elements - atoms are smaller than molecules - Levels of Organization - subatomic level = protons [+] and electrons [e-] (smallest) -----> atomic level (small) -----> molecular level (bigger) -----> cellular level (largest) - composed of three (3) subatomic particles 1. protons: a particle in an atom’s nucleus carrying a positive charge 2. neutrons: a particle in an atom’s nucleus that is electrically charged (neutral) 3. electrons: a negatively charged particle that orbit’s the atom’s nucleus - nucleus of atom: central part of an atom - nucleus of cell: the membrane-bounded sac that contains DNA molecules in a eukaryotic cell - isotope: any of the forms of an element, each having a different number of neutrons in the nucleus* - many known isotopes are unstable and radioactive. - radioactive: an atom that emits particles or rays as its nucleus disintegrates. - atomic weight: the average mass of all isotopes of an element - ions: an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained electrons; giving it an electrical charge Section 2.2 Chemical Bonds Link Atoms - Atoms are organized into molecules. - molecules: two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds - diatomic: consist of two or more of the same element e.g. hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2) - compound: molecule composed of two or more different elements e.g. carbon monoxide - Electrons determine bonding. The number and distribution of electrons around an atom determines whether atoms react with one another. - Atoms are most stable when outer shells have NO vacancies- --bonding with other atoms fills vacancies. - orbitals: volume of space where a particular electron is likely to be. - energy shell: group of electron orbitals that share the same energy level. - valence shell: outermost occupied energy shell of an atom. - electronegativity: an atom’s tendency to attract electrons. - chemical bond: attractive force that holds atoms together - polar (polarity) ---> (opposite) changes - covalent bond vs hydrogen bond - covalent bond ---> inside molecule between atoms - hydrogen bond ---> between molecules - covalent bonds: type of chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons e.g. methane (all atoms equally share electrons), H2O forms in similar process as methane - double bond: a pair of atoms can share two pairs of electrons forming a double covalent bond. - since electrons spend more time near oxygen, the oxygen atom has a slightly negative charge. The hydrogen atoms have a slight positive charge. - hydrogen bond: weak chemical bond between opposite partial charges on two molecules or within one large molecule - slight positive charge on the hydrogen atom of one water molecule attracts the slight negative charge on the oxygen of an adjacent water molecule creates hydrogen bond - hydrogen bonds give water cohesive properties, as well as being present in protein and DNA structure - ionic bonds: attraction between oppositely charged ions (transfer of electrons between one atom to another) - atom loses electron ---> positive charge - atom gains electron ---> negative charge Section 2.3 Water is Essential to Life - cohesion: tendency of water molecules to stick to one another, due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules - adhesion: the tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other substances - cohesion between molecules in the surface of liquid water give it high surface tension - together cohesion and adhesion allow water molecules to ‘climb’ from a tree’s roots to its highest leaves. - water dissolves hydrophilic (‘water-loving’) solutes e.g. polar molecules, such as salt, sugar, ions - water doesn’t dissolve hydrophobic (‘water-fearing’) solutes e.g. nonpolar molecules, such as lipids (fats, oils), anions - the polarity of water molecules helps water dissolve ions - slight negative charge on water attracts positive charges - when frozen, water molecules expand, therefore ice is less dense than liquid water - water participates in chemical reactions - photosynthesis (water input) - cellular respiration (water output) - solutes: a chemical that dissolves in a solvent. - solvents: a chemical in which other substances dissolve - solution: a mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent. - evaporation: the conversion of a liquid into a vapor. - reactant: a starting material in a chemical reaction. - products: the result of a chemical reaction. Section 2.4 Organisms Balance Acids and Bases - The pH scale is based on the amount of H+ ion in a solution (organics = has carbon) - organisms balance acids and bases - pH Scale - 0-6 ---> acidic (high H+ concentration) - 7 ---> neutral - 8-14---> base (low H+ concentration) - Basic solutions have a high pH and a low H+ concentration. Bases have more OH- ions than H+ ions. - strongest acid and strongest base ----> H2O - acidic = low number -basic = high number Section 2.5 Organic Molecules Generate Life’s Form & Function - organic molecules: chemical molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen. e.g. Methane - many organic molecules are categorized into four (4) main types 1. Carbohydrates: e.g. soda 2. Proteins e.g. meat and dairy 3. Nucleic Acids e.g. RNA 4. Lipids (Fats) e.g. fats, oils - a monomer is a single unit of a carbohydrate, protein, or nucleic acid. Monomers join to form polymers (simple sugars). - carbohydrates include simple sugars and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates. - polysaccharides: long chains of carbohydrates. - proteins have more variable structures and functions than any of the other organic molecules. The most important function is for enzyme proteins to speed up reactions inside our cells. - polymers: a long molecule composed of similar subunits (monomer) - monomers: a single unit of a polymeric molecule - monomers (building blocks) of protein are amino acids--- all amino acids have same general structure - function of protein depends on its shape. - primary sequence: the amino acid sequence of a protein - secondary structure: a “substructure” within a protein, resulting from hydrogen bonds between parts of the peptide backbone. - tertiary structure: the overall shape of a polypeptide, resulting mostly from interactions between amino acid R groups and water. - quaternary structure: the shape arising from interactions between multiple polypeptides subunits of the same protein. - denaturation: modification of a protein’s shape so that its function is destroyed. - nucleic acid includes DNA & RNA. These molecules contain genetic information. DNA contains hydrogen bonds between nucleotides - nucleotides are the monomers of DNA - Five types of Nucleotides 1. DNA 2. RNA 3. Adenine 4. Cytosine 5. Guanine - Lipids are hydrophobic and energy-rich. This class or organic molecules includes triglycerides (fats) and sterols. - All carbons of a saturated fatty acid are bonded to four other atoms. Saturated fats raise LDL cholesterol. - An unsaturated fatty acid contains at least - All carbons of a saturated fatty acid are bonded to four other atoms. Saturated fats raise LDL cholesterol. - An unsaturated fatty acid contains at least one double bond, so at least two carbons are only bonded to three other atoms - saturated fatty acid: a fatty acid with a single bond between all carbon atoms. - unsaturated fat: a fatty acid with at least one double bond between carbon atoms. - Double bonds create kinks in fatty acids preventing them packing close together. Unsaturated fats (oils ) are liquids---- HDL raised. - Trans fats have double bonds, like unsaturated fats, but remain straight. They are solid at room temperature---lower HDL, LDL cholesterol raised. -sterols important for lipid molecules. - cholesterol stabilizes molecules in animal cell membranes - several hormones are derived from cholesterol. - trans fats: unsaturated fat with straight fatty acid tails. - sterols: lipid consisting of four (4) interconnected carbon rings. - Biologically Important Organic Macromolecules: - Testing for presence of… - Protein ---> Biuret ----> purple (+) test, blue (-) test - Sugars ---> Benedict’s Reagent ---> green - low (-), yellow – low (+), yellow-orange- moderate (+), orange – high (+), red- very high (+) - Starch ---> Iodine ----> black (+) test, yellow (-) test Polymer Monomer carbohydrates -----> simple sugars proteins -----> amino acids nucleic acid -----> nucleotides lipids -----> fatty acids Biological  Subunits /  Polymer: Example: Macromolecule: Monomer: cglucoserates monosaccharide polysaccharide nucleotides nucleic acid DNA nucleic acid Albumin  polypeptide proteins amino acids (egg whites) lipids Glycerol + 3 Triglyceride Fat, butter, oil Fatty acids Cholesterol


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