Review of Chemistry PPT
Review of Chemistry PPT BIOL 2220
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2220 at Clemson University taught by John Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
ClemsonUniversity Fall 2016 HumanAnatomy andPhysiologyI Review ofChemistry Slide 1: Review of Chemistry Cell: - Structuraland functionalunit oflife - Carriesoutchemical reactions o Ex: Thebreakdownofglycogento releaseglucoseis achemical reaction that occursinsidethe cell Slide 2: Matter Materia is Latinfor “timber” or “substance” Slide 3: Definition of Matter Anything that occupiesspaceandhasmass Is composedofchemicalelements Bodypossessesmatter andis composedofchemicalelements Slide 4: Elements Substancesthat cannotbedecomposedinto smaller substancesbyany ordinary/naturalchemicalreactions Slide 5: ChemicalElements 118chemical elements - 92occur naturally - Others aremanmadein particle acceleratorswhereparticles collide together to make anelement eventhoughit may not last long Humanbodycontains 24chemical elements - O, C, H, andN Makeup96%ofbodycomposition - O, C, H, N+ CaandP Makeup99% ofbodycomposition All ofthe other 24elementsin the bodyare calledtraceelements (18/24) - Ex: Generationofnervousimpulseshasto do with sodium andpotassium Slides 6-8: Statesof Matter Matter canexist in 3differentstates Bodypossessesallofthesestates Differencebetweenonesateofmatter andanother isbecauseofthespeedof moleculesthat make up thematter Moleculesareconstantly in motionwhether it’sslow or fast Solid: - Matter hasadefinitive form - Slowest formofmoleculemovement - Ex: Crystalline structure - Ex: Teeth andbones Liquid: - If onetakesa solidandincreasesthe motionofthe moleculesthat make upthat solid, it will loseits definitive shapeandbecomealiquid - Liquidhas slightly faster moving molecules - Takes theshapeofits container - Hasa certainvolume - Ex: Plasmain the bloodthattakes the shapeofbloodvessels,urinecollectedin the bladder takesthe shapeofthebladder Gas: - If onetakesa liquid andspeedsupthemotion ofthe moleculesthat make upthat liquid, agaswill result - Doesn’thaveadefinitive shapeor volume - Volumechangesasthe container that holdsthegaschanges - Ex: Air in lungs Bychanging thevolume ofthelungs, this changesthe pressureofthegas(Air)that allows humansto breathe Matter canchangefromonestateto another: - Water:Subtract heatto slow downthe molecular motion Formationofasolid (Ice) - Bones(Solid): ChangingthepH condition Changesinmolecular motion Bonesbecomingsoluble Liquidform Slide 9: Energy En-ergon is Greekfor “atwork” Slide 10:Definition of Energy The ability to do work The ability to put matter into motion Again: Inorder to put matter into motion, it’s necessaryto addenergy Slide 11-16:Forms of Energy Potential: - Storedenergy - Ex: Roller coaster car atthe topofahill representspotentialenergy Kinetic: - Energyin motion - Ex: Whentheroller coaster car startsgoingdown thehill, thepotential energyis convertedinto kinetic energy - Energyput into asystem canbestoredto uselater Whenthe storedenergyis released,it is convertedinto kinetic energythat canbe used Chemical: - Energycontainedwithin bondsbetweenelements (In the formofchemical bonds=Storedenergy) - In order to releasechemicalenergy,thechemical bondsneed to bebroken - Absorbingchemical energy Creationofabond Createspotentialenergy - Breakingbonds Releaseofkinetic energy Electrical: - Results fromtheflow ofchargedparticles - Ex: Battery o Haspositive andnegative ions Becausetheyareattractedto each other,the ionscreateacurrent - Ex: Inthe bodytherearepositiveand negativeions also o Flowofions createselectrical energyinthe body Mechanical: - Energythat is requiredfor movement - Ex: Windturbine: o Wind blowinghits the turbineblade that causesit to spin (Wind setsthe turbineinto motion) Canconvertthe mechanical energyinto electrical energy Powershouses Electromagnetic: - AKA radiantenergy - Energythat travels inwaves - Includeslight, sound,andheat waves **Energycomesfromchemical, electrical, mechanical, andelectromagnetic energy Kinetic energy(Energyinaction) Slide 17:Energy Conversions First Law of Thermodynamics: - Energycanneither becreatedor destroyed - Energyis instead convertedfromoneformto another Second Law of Thermodynamics: - No energyconversionis100%efficient - Someenergyis goingto belost to the environment - Lostenergyinthe bodymakes heat,which helps maintain constant body temperature o Metabolic processesareresponsiblefor generatingthisheat Bodysystem overall:Changesenergyfromoneformto another allthetime - Ex: Consumedfoodisconvertedto chemical energy,mechanical energy,etc. Slide 18:Atom Atomos isGreekfor “Indivisible” Slide 19:Definition of an Atom The smallest unit ofmatter thancan enter achemical reaction All elements ofcomposedofatoms Matter is composedofelements Elements cannotbebrokendowninto anything smaller under normalreactionsbutthey containatoms that allow elementsto react with other elements Slide 20:Composition of an Atom Anatom is composedofanucleusatthe center wheremost ofthemass ofanatomis located Nucleus: - Composedof protons(+)and neutrons (Neutralcharge) Outside the nucleus,electrons (-) revolvearoundthenucleusandareconstantlyin motion - In order to keeptheelectronsmoving aroundthenucleus,therehasto bethe samenumber ofprotonsaselectrons Slide 21:Atomic Number Number ofprotonsthatexist in anatom #ofprotons=#ofelectrons Increasingthe atomic number Moreprotonsinthenucleus Increasesthe mass oftheatom Slide 22:Atomic Mass Sum ofthenumber ofprotons+number ofneutrons Mostofthe massofanatom is thenucleus Increasingthe atomic number Moreprotonsinthenucleus, which is partofthe atomic massbut other partincludes theneutrons Isotope: - Anatom that contains thesamenumber ofprotonsandelectronsbutadifferent number ofneutrons - Ex: IsotopeofLithium Will contain 3protonsand3electronsbut will havea differentnumber ofneutronsthanaregular Liatom Slide 22:Periodic Table of Elements Eachelement in the periodictable hasanatomic number that gives thenumber of protons(Andelectrons)theatom possesses Chemical symbolsand atomic weights arealso listed Elements that havesimilar characteristicscan beplacedinto columns Tells us howthe element is goingto react inchemical reactions - Someelements will donateor acceptelectronswhile other elements share electrons Slide 23:Energy Levels Orbitals/shells: - Regionsin which the electronsmovearoundthenucleus - Electronsarein constantmotion - Eachorbital hasamaximum number ofelectronsit canhold Slide 24:Valence The number ofextraor deficientelectronsin theoutermostenergylevel AKA: Electronsthat in the outermostorbital/shell If anorbital/shellis full like neon,theelement is inert andnotreactive (Includesthe noblegases-Lastcolumn in theperiodictable) If anorbital/shellisn’t full, the element is reactivebecauseit hasa deficient or extra amountofelectrons **All atoms want to havefull outermostorbitals/shells Slide 25:ChemicalReactions Combining or breakingapartofatomsformingnew productswith different propertiesfromtheoriginals Ex: Inthe picture, aredliquid was mixed with a greenliquid - Results in color changesthataredifferentproperties - Canseethis is an exergonicreaction(Givesoffenergy),whichcausesit to bubble andboil so that theliquid is changedinto agas Again: Inchemical reactions,atomscombine that resultin new substancesthat have differentproperties Slide 26:ChemicalReactions Atoms alwaystry to fill the outermostenergylevel - Accomplished bygiving up, accepting, or sharingelectronswith another atom AKA: Achemical reaction isan interchangeofelectronsamongatoms Slide 27:Molecule Combination oftwo or moreatomsfromachemical reaction - Interactions oftwo or moreatoms Molecule Moleculesdo nothaveto beacombination ofthesame atoms Slide 28:Compound Substancethat canbebrokendowninto two or moreothersbyachemical means Always contain combinationsoftwo or moredifferentelements All compoundsaremoleculesbutnot all moleculesarecompounds Slide 30:ChemicalBonding Attractive forcesthatholdtogether theatoms ofamolecule Bondshaveto formbetweenatoms in order for thecompoundto bemade Slides 31-37:Types of Bonds Ionic: - Relates to the ideathat oppositesattract Ionsofoppositechargesare attracted to oneanother - Electronsin the outermostshellgive an ionic charge - Atoms with a small excessnumber ofelectronsareattractedtowardsatomsthat haveaweak deficiency in electrons(Atoms that alreadyhavemuchmore electronsin their outermostshell) - Ions: o Positively or negativelychargedparticles which resultwhen anatom gains or loseselectrons Cation:(+) Givesup electron=Electron donor;Willhavemore protonsthanelectrons Anion: (-) Accepts electron=Electron acceptor;Will havefewer protonsthanelectrons o In other terms:Ionic bondswill createions that will havechargesthatare consideredto be polar—Dueto thepositive andnegative charges o Ex: Inthe picture Thereis1 extraelectronin theoutermost(valence) shellin Na and1 lesselectronin theoutermostshell in Cl Dueto ionic bonding,bothatoms havefull outer shellsdueto Na donatingits electronto Cl (Acceptor) Covalent: - Shareelectronsbetweenatomsin a chemical reaction Electronswill circle aroundbothnuclei - Morestableandcommonthan ionic bonds - Ex: Carboniscapableofmaking 4covalent bonds - Types: a) Single covalentbond: o Share1pair ofelectrons o Ex: CandH make asingle covalentbond b) Double covalent bond: o Share2setsofelectrons o Ex: 2O moleculesmake a doublecovalentbond c) Triple covalentbond: o Share3pairsofelectrons - Electronsaremoving aroundatomsequallyor unequally,which createspartial polar or non-polar covalentbonds *Ionicbondsarepolar,andgenerally,polarity is notassociatedwith covalent bonds Hydrogen: - Technically notabondandis instead moreofanattraction that isdue to electronegativity - Ex: H2O o Water is composedofanOwith 2H aroundit o Electronsspendmoretime aroundOthanH CreatesH= partial positive chargeandO =partial negative charge o Betweenwater molecules: O areattractively held in placeasa result(Due to hydrogenbondingbetweentheO and H) - H usuallyattracts O andN - Hydrogenbondsareveryweak,andagainthey areessentially electronegative forcesthatholdmolecules together Slides 38-45:ChemicalReactions Making or breakingbonds Number ofatomsremainsthe samebut arerearranged Chemical formulaexample:2 H2+ O2 2H2O - Balancedequation - Leftside ofthearrow:Reactants - Right side ofthearrow:Products - Productsalways haveto havethe samenumber ofatomsasthe reactants - Molecular formula=2H2O - Wholeformula=Chemical equation Somereactantscan go backthe other wayto theleft ofthe arrow Seenin situations wherethings canbebuilt upto bestoredfor later andthenthey canbe brokendownwhenneeded Types ofchemical reactions: a) Synthesis - Metabolism: Consistedof catabolic andanabolicreactions - Synthesis reactionsareanabolic Building things upandmaking them better - 2or moreatomsor moleculesarecombinedto formabigger one - Ex: Amino acid + Amino acid combineto produceaprotein b) Decomposition: - Catabolic Breakingthings down - Bondsinlargemolecules arebrokendownto yield smaller substances **All things arebasedupsynthesisanddecomposition c) Exchange: - Partsynthesis andpart decomposition - Oxidation-reduction reactions o Important reactionsthat occur inthe body o Haveto do with anexchangeofelectrons o Wheresomeatomswill donateanelectronto something else o Anatom that gives upanddonatesanelectron= Oxidized o Anatom that acceptsand electron=Reduced d) Reversible: - End productscanrevertbackto the reactants - Happenswhenneither thereactants or theproductsareverystable(Wantto reachequilibrium) e) Exergonic: - Catabolic - Releasesenergy(Netenergyis givenoff) - Productshavelessenergythanthe reactants - Cannothaveany chemical reactions unlessthereis aninput ofsomeenergyto make it happen f) Endergonic: - Anabolic Requirestheinput ofenergy - Productsareata higher level ofenergythanthereactants - Ex: Chemical energystoredinbonds Makingsomething big betweenreactants Slide 46:Collision Theory Explains howandwhy chemical reactionsoccur All particles arein constantmotion andcontinually collide with oneanother - Alternative explanation: All matter consistsofelements andelements consist of atomsand all elementshave those atomsin constantmotion Atoms ultimately bumpinto oneanother If collision providesactivation energy,bondsarebrokenor formed - Alternative explanation: Ifthe collision is strongenoughto gettheatoms close enoughto interact with oneanother Activation energyis producedwhich allows bondsto beformedor broke Slide 48:Activation Energy Collision energyisneededfor achemical reaction - All chemical reactionsneedto haveaninput ofsomeenergyin order to allow them to take place (That energytypically comesfromacollision) Activation energy:Amountofenergyneededto rearrangetheelectronsofa molecule Slides 49-52:FactorsAffecting ChemicalReactions Velocity of collidingparticles: - The faster particlesaremoving, the moreimpact, the higher theenergy,and the greater thereactivity - Mostexperiments requireheatingsubstancesbecause temperatureis a measurementofmolecular motion - Ex: Bodytemperatureiskept at around98degreesF Keepsmoleculesinvery fastmotion which allows them to bevery reactive Energy of collidingparticles: - Energyisn’t just basedonthespeedofmotion, it is also basedon particlesize - Smaller particle sizesarebetter Smaller thingscan movefaster thanbigger things andthereforehavemoreenergy - Big things movingslowly still impart energythough Concentration ofcollidingparticles: - The moreparticlesthereare,the morecollisions that will occur Catalysts: - Increasetherateofa chemical reactionwithout being consumedinthe reaction - Ex: Bodyhavebiologicalcatalysts, which areenzymesour bodiesproducethat aresubstancesthat speedupchemical reactions o Reactionswithout catalysts wouldcausethe reactionsto occur to slowly to keep humansalive
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