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Microbiology 3050 Lecture 1

by: Trinh Nguyen

Microbiology 3050 Lecture 1 micro 3050

Marketplace > Clemson University > Science > micro 3050 > Microbiology 3050 Lecture 1
Trinh Nguyen
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Notes taken in class for the first lecture, 8/29/16.
Dr. Rudolph
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trinh Nguyen on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to micro 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Rudolph in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see microbiology in Science at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Microbiology 3050 : Lecture 2.1-2.4  Defines microorganism? o Organism and acellular too small to be seen with the naked eye.  Smaller than 1-millimeter diameter wise.  Most cellular organism are single celled with non specialized tissue.  They often lives in cluster known as unicellular. o Exceptions:  thiomargarita nambiensis largest know bacteria can be seen, the size of a fruit fly.  Ameba (1 inch), bread mold, ect..  Organisms and biological entities are categorized by cellular and acellular: o Cellular: Fungi (yeast, molds); Protists (Algea, Protozoa, Slime molds); Bacteria (Escherichia, coli); and Archaea (Methanogens). o Acellular: Viruses (Protein & nucleic acid); Viroids (RNA); Satellites (Nucleic acid, RNA); Prions (Protein)  Archaea are not bacteria.  Acellular are things to infect other organisms. (virus, prions, ect..)  Importance of Microorganism: 30 o Most populated species on earth, estimated 5x10 bacteria on earth. o They are found everywhere, mostly underground. o Their metabolic diversity allows them to inhabit most places. o Play major role in recycling elements: nitrogen, carbon, sulfur o Bacteria contribute to 50% oxygen and 90% of nitrogen on earth. o Bacteria are the first to produce oxygen and oxygenate the atmosphere. o Most are beneficial to us (vitamins, antibiotics, vaccines, steroids, treating waste water) or some are benign and some are detrimental (deadly) o Some carry out photosynthesis. o Influence all other living things and an excellent tool for study (quickly growth and small).  Types of Microbial Cells: o Prokaryotic (means before nucleus) lacks a true membrane-bound nucleus. However, this is not an absolute, because there is one group with membrane bound nucleus.  Encompasses the domain Bacteria and Archaea.  Most bacteria have cell wall but not like plant’s cell wall, and a cell membrane. They also have cytoplasm where organelles are contained, nucleoid of unbounded DNA, follow by plasmid (extra DNA and thousands of copies) that can pass down advantageous traits to the next generation, or will be lost if not. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. o Eukaryotic have membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane bound organelles, more complex morphologically, are larger than prokaryotes.  Contains Cytoplamic Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, Golgi, Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion, Chloroplast. o Similarity between the two: Ribosomes, Cytoplasm, Cytoplasmic Membrane, DNA.  Acellular Infectious Agents o Viruses: are NOT cells, but consist of protein coat and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). Some have additional layers.  Requires host cell to replicate themselves (or intercellular parasites).  They causes range of disease (and some cancer). o Viroids and Satellites are infectious agents composed of RNA o Prions: Infectious proteins. Responsible for mad cow disease.  Classification (Universal Phylogenetic Tree). o Three-domain system, based on a comparison between DNA that encodes small subunit ribosomal RNA. o Divides microorganisms into three branches: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. o The differences are made obvious by isolating DNA of these cells using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and to amplify the amount of DNA for sequencing. Scientists then read the sequences and select which microorganism share similar sequence, therefore are closer relative to each other. o MATH: if there are two similar rRNA letter out of nine in the sequnce between bacteria 1 and bacteria 2; 2/9=.222 indicates the evolutionary distance. This has nothing to with time and origin, but with relativity.  Picture above: o The root of the tree indicates LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor). o Archaea are more closely related to Eukarya due to similar membrane lipids. o Proteobacteria and Gram-positive bacteria have different cell wall. o Mitochondrion and Chloroplast both contain DNA, leading to Endo-symbiotic Theory, where one bacterium engulfs another forming a eukaryotic-like cell.  Domain Bacteria: o Prokaryotes, o Usually single-celled and have cell wall (not similar to that of plant’s) made up of peptidoglycan. o Found in soil, water, air and in/on other organism o Some live in extreme environment  Domain Archaea: o Prokaryotes o Different from bacteria due to unique rRNA sequences o Lacks peptidoglycan in cell walls o Have unique membrane lipids that resemble that of eukaryotes o Some have unusual metabolic characteristics, allowing them to inhabit extreme conditions. o Some have mono-lipid layer that sticks cluster together better than bilayer, aiding them to survive in harsh environment.  Domain Eukarya: o Euarkyotes and have specialized tissue. o Protists: larger than members of Bacteria and Archaea  Algae  Protozoa (unicellular, animal like; ex amoeba)  Slime Molds (animal/fungus like)  Water Molds (grow on dead vegetation) o Fungi:  Yeast  Mold: can be microscopic at times (means no highly differentiated tissue). Note: microbes are not eukaryotic b/c they lack differentiated tissue.  Origins of Life (Microbial Evolution) o Microbial fossils  Swartkoppie and Archaean Apex chert (found in Australia)  3.5 years old fossil o Indirect evidence and scientific method o Study of extant organism (comparing to the dead fossil)  How do microbes evolve? o Mutation in genetic material: that is stable (occur to mutagen or spontaneously during DNA replication)Leads to a new phenotype (not necessarily a new phenotype as well) This change is not permanent until the microorganism pass natural selection. o Bacteria and Archaea are haploid, which means they have only 1 copy of every gene. This causes their mutation to be very obvious and expressive. o Mutation/Genetic Diversity is common among them due to horizontal gene transfer (DNA changes within the same generation not the next generation); Conjugation, Transduction (via virus), and Transformation (when bacteria takes up naked DNAs from the environment).  Microbes “Species” are defined differently because they do not produce sexually. o Rather it’s a collection of strain that share many stable properties and differ from other groups’ strains. o A strain also counts as “sub-species”  A pure strain is descendants of a single parent of the same specie; know as “pure” culture. Mutation can occur within the newer microbes, creating a new strain but they’re still the same strain as their parents. Example: E. coli K12 and E. coli 0157: H7  A Type Strain is what scientist use as a “permanent” example to compare to a newer strain to, mostly to look at new mutation changes.  Permanent example is the first strain studied, fully characterized, not necessarily most representative member of species.  Naming Microbes are based on Binomial Nomenclature: o Genus and Species  Escherichia coli (name after discoverer in the colon)  Bacillus subtilis (rod shape and slender)  Micrococcus luteus (yellow pigment colored)  Streptococcus lactis (Strep means chain comes from milk)  Staphylococcus aureus (Looks like a bunch of grapes under microscope)  Treponema pallidum (turning, thread, pale)  Saccharomyces cerevisiae (A yeast to make beer)  Discovery of Microorganism o Robert Hooke: describe the fruiting structure of molds, from the base of a shoe. o Antony van Leeuwenhoek: first to observe and accurately describe bacteria. He thought they were animals.  Conflict of Spontaneous Generation Theory: o Spontaneous Generation: Living organism can develop from nonliving or decomposing matter. o Francesco Redi discredited spontaneous generation for large animal with his experiment with meat and flies. o Louis Pasteur discredited spontaneous generation for microorganism by bending the neck of a sterile broth-filled flask, preventing germ to reach the broth. Once he broke the neck, germ appeared on top, proving those microorganisms are present in air. However, air itself does not create microorganism. o John Tyndall proves dust carries microorganism and optically pure air does not cause the broth to go bad. However, when this failed he again helped prove they’re “heat resistant” microbes in the broth. o Ferdinand Cohn discovered bacterial endospores because he thought they were plants and was the first to name them by shape. Example: Bacillus.  Role of Microorganism in Disease: o People used to believe supernatural forces cause infectious disease. o The connection between microbes and disease came from developmental techniques. This eventually the study of host defenses, immunology.  Indirect Evidence:  Joseph Lister developed a surgery system to prevent microbes entering the wounds post- surgery, resulting in fewer. He’s a founding father of modern surgery.  Ignaz Semmelweis suggested doctors at hand- washing before delivery to prevent “childbirth fever”.  Direct Evidence:  Robert Koch established relationship between Bacillus anthracis and anthrax. He developed the criteria now known as Koch’s postulates to establish such relationship. o 1 out of 7 human were dying of tuberculosis and to prove the pathogen that cause this disease with Koch’s Postulates: o First step: The suspect pathogen should present in all disease organism and not in healthy one. o Second step: The suspect organism should be grown in pure culture. o Third step: Cells from pure culture should cause disease in healthy animal. o Fourth step: The organism could be re- isolated and show to be same as original.  Supplies used by him: Agar, petri dishes, nutrient broth, and nutrient agar, method for isolating bacteria.  Developments of Immunology: o Edward Jenner used vaccination to protect individual from smallpox (using the diary maid’s pus. Cow’s pox was similar to small pox). o Pasteur and Roux discovered pathogens lose their ability to cause disease after a interval of time, called attenuation. o Pasteur and his coworkers developed vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies.  Developments of Industrial Microbiology o Louis Pasteur demonstrated microorganism carried out fermentation and developed the process called pasteurization. o Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin.  Developments in Microbial Ecology o Sergie Winogradsky and Martinus Beijerick pioneered use of enrichments culture and selective media. o Studied soil and discovered numerous interesting metabolic processes (such as nitrogen fixation). o Winogradsky discovered chemolitotrophy and Beijerinck became father of “virology”


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