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Chemistry: Aug. 22-Sept. 2

by: Anzlee

Chemistry: Aug. 22-Sept. 2 CHEM 1120

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These notes are from class and would make an excellent additional resource!
General Chemistry II
Ngee S Chong
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1120 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Ngee S Chong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chemistry: August 22-September 2 Prerequisites to Review *Remember how to do Lewis Dot Structure *Review of Group Names on Period Table: 1A/1- Alkali Metals 2A/2- Alkali Earth Metals 6A/16- Chalcogens 7A/17- Halogens (Diatomic) 8A/18- Noble/Inert Gases *States at Room Temperature: Gas: Mg and Br Liquid: Fr, Cs, Gr, and Rb Solid- all others *Solubility: -Solute- what’s going into solvent; smaller number of moles -Solvent- dissolves solute; larger number of moles -Solubility- maximum amount of substance it can dissolve at a given volume -Miscible- liquids are mutually soluble in any proportion Chapter 6 Intermolecular Forces •   Interactions between nonpolar molecules o   Dispersion- momentary shift in electron density o   Dispersion (London) forces- caused by presence of temporary dipoles in molecules (weakest bond) §   Larger molecules usually solid, then liquid, then gas o   Temporary (induced) dipole- separation of charge produced in atom or molecule by a temporary uneven distribution of electrons (middle strength) §   May be caused by a reaction between a polar and nonpolar molecule o   Polarizability- the ease that an electron cloud in a molecule, ion, or atom can be distorted, inducing a temporary dipole §   Larger molecules/elements have higher polarizability because intermolecular forces are weaker Factors Affecting Strength of Dispersion: •   Size of atom/molecule- larger are more polarizable because the outer valence electrons are being weakly pulled by the positive nucleus; dispersion increases with polarizability o   Molar mass size is directly correlated with boiling point/melting point o   RVP: reid vapor pressure of gasoline regulated by Environmental Protection Agency •   Shape of molecules- increased surface area causes increased interactions and stronger interactions, which affects physical and chemical properties; linear molecules have higher dispersion than branched molecules with similar molecule weight o   Constitutional isomers (structural isomers)- molecules that have the same formulas, but different connections between atoms; differently arranged o   Larger surface = larger dispersion = higher boiling point o   Viscosity- measure of resistance of a fluid to flow (cP- centipoise unit) §   factors: molecular shape, molar mass, and temperature §   higher molar mass= higher viscosity Interactions Involving Polar Molecules: •   Dipole-dipole attraction- the force between polar molecules •   Hydrogen bond- strongest dipole-dipole interaction o   occurs between hydrogen bonded to a small and highly electronegative element (F, O, N) and an atom of O or N in another molecule o   Ex. between complementary sites on double stranded DNA- between A and T or C and D o   All alcohols; all amino acids can have hydrogen bonds o   More hydrogen bonding = higher boiling point •   Boiling points of Binary Hydrides- when boiling points are related to attractive forces, be able to determine boiling point order •   Ion-Dipole- force between an ion and a molecule with a permanent dipole •   Sphere of hydration- water molecules surrounding ion in aqueous medium Solubility: •   Depends on relative strength of interactions between molecules •   Ionic/polar solutes are soluble in polar solvents o   No solution if different forces •   Nonpolar solutes are soluble in nonpolar solvents o   No solution if different forces •   More than one force may need to be examined o   Solubility decreases as hydrogen bonding energy decreases and dispersion increases •   Hydrophobic- repels water; lowers solubility •   Hydrophilic- attracts water; heightens solubility Physical States: •   Factors that affect state: intermolecular forces, temperature, pressure •   Phase diagram o   Graphical representation of substance’s states depending on temperature and pressure o   Lines represent points where two states on either side coexist in equilibrium o   Triple point- where all phases exist at same time o   Critical point- where liquid and gas have same density o   Supercritical fluid- substance above critical temperature and pressure Properties of Water: •   Surface tension- energy needed to separate molecules of the liquid’s surface; directly correlates with strength of intermolecular forces •   Cohesion- interactions between same particles •   Adhesion- interactions between different particles •   ex. meniscus §   concave- adhesive forces greater than cohesive forces §   convex- cohesive forces greater than adhesive forces •   Capillary action- liquid can spontaneously flow against gravity; involves adhesive and cohesive forces •   Density of water- decreases as a solid o   Important for aquatic ecosystems Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions •   Enthalpy of Solution depends on: o   Energies that are holding the solute ions in the crystal lattice o   Attractive force holding solvent together o   Interactions between solute ions and solvent molecules •   Lattice energy- energy released when 1 mole of the ionic compound forms from free ions in gas phase; energy released when crystal lattice forms (positive) •   ΔH ion-ionenergy required to remove ions from crystal lattice (negative) •   Born-Haber cycle- series of steps with change of energy (ΔH) that describe the formation of an ionic solid from its elements (sublimation, bond breaking, ionization, electron affinity, formation) Isoelectronic- same electron configuration when electrons are lost or gained Na is isoelectronic with Ne Vapor Pressure: •   Pressure exerted by gas in equilibrium with liquid; evaporation and condensation rates are equal •   Normal boiling point- ambient pressure must be standard pressure •   Factors affecting vapor pressure: o   Temperature/surface area; overcoming intermolecular forces o   Presence of nonvolatile solute- affects rate; decreases vapor pressure o   Clausius-Clapeyron Equation: related vapor pressure with temperature of substance to its heat of evaporation •   Fractional Distillation- separate a mixture of compounds based on their differing boiling points o   More volatile components have enriched vapor pressure •   Raoult’s Law- total of overall pressure is equal to the sum of each individual pressures of the components, in an ideal solution •   Real vs. Ideal solutions- due to differences in solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions


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