Psychology 202: Birth of Psychological Science
Psychology 202: Birth of Psychological Science
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Bryce Buser on Monday April 21, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 182 views.
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Date Created: 04/21/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates Class 1 is not included in my note taking we went over the syllabus and that was it What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Read the book either right before or right after the corresponding lecture to ensure that you get all the material on a specific topic at the same time You can always go back and review if you don39t understand the first time you read through it It39s easier to learn the same material at once rather than trying to go back and remember the lecture when you read the book several lectures later Thursday April 3 2014 Corresponding Readings Textbook p 125 Vocabulary Psychology adapted from a mix of the principles of Philosophy and Medicine Psychology in the modern era is the study of the brain and behavior using different scientific methods including but not limited to observations self report psychological measures and implicit measurements This can be subdivided to the brain naturwissenschaften and mind geisteswissenschaften Naturwissenshaften a German word meaning nature knowledge to make Geisteswissenschaften a German word meaning spirit knowledge to make Transcendentalism ames 18421910 The idea that something exists spiritualism outside what can be seen and observed through science Pragmatism ames 18421910 the idea that when you know something that it is for the benefit to be able to act upon that knowledge and use it accordingly For example further experiments or to be able to apply knowledge found in research for society39s needs Cognitive Module Associated with personal psychology during the Cognitive Revolution The example of loving the children and wanting what39s best for them was given in the lecture Behavior Associated with personal psychology during the Cognitive Revolution The example of raising the children feeding clothing teaching etc was given in the lecture Behaviorism studied by using animal research which consisted mainly of observation It is the idea that behavior can be explained without regards to thoughts or feelings the blank slate theory was developed along with behaviorism Blank Slates the idea that children are born as blank slates implies that the only thing that affects the identity of a child is how they are raised It says that children can be raised to be whatever the child39s parents want them to be whether it be a doctor police officer etc without the idea that genetics play a role in the actual outcomes of children39s lives Fitness Associated with personal psychology in the Cognitive Revolution fitness is the ability for offspring to survive to reproduce Social Psychology the young field engaged in the question of how people could have participated in the horrors of WWII which led to studies in conformity obedience and authoritarianism This time period after WWII is often referred to as the Golden Age of Psychology Eugenics Positive and Negative the idea coined by Galton which encouraged people who were fit to breed this is known as positive eugenics and for those who are unfit to refrain from breeding negative eugenics ohns Hopkins University founded in 1876 when there was a massive donation to the university by Iohns Hopkins Rather than clergy running the board of trustees the university had industrialists and had the pragmatic mission that Knowledge was for the betterment of society The Cognitive Revolution a movement that began the cognitive sciences The Revolution took place in the 1950s The Cognitive Revolution included many different types of sciences but for the purpose of this course we are focusing on the cognitive psychology part of the revolution Cognitive Psychology consists of cognitive neuroscience social cognition personality psychology evolutionary psychology and positive psychology It is under personal psychology that we see fitness behavior and the cognitive module all of which are defined above Experiments Conformity Solomon Asch 19071996 The experiment conducted by Asch was one that included many actors and one research participant During the experiment the entire group was asked a question Each of the actors selected the incorrect answer on purpose This experiment introduced conformity when it was found that the research participant would select the incorrect answer as well even knowing that is was wrong in order to fit in with the group Obedience Stanley Milgram 19331983 Milgram conducted a study that involved research participants who believed that they were giving other human being in the room next door shocks by pressing a button They were not giving anyone shocks and the experiment strictly tested whether humans would just follow directions instead of following their own thoughts which is defined by obedience This experiment found that some of the research participants went all the way to pressing the button that would actually kill a person although some people would drop at different markers along the way This research experiment was conducted after WWII when it was still being questioned how people could blindly follow orders under Hitler Authoritarianism The Stanford Prison Experiment conduced by Philip Zimbardo 1933 The Stanford Prison Experiment was conducted in an basement at Standard University All students who participated did so willingly and the students were divided up into prison security guards and prisoners Philip Zimbardo himself was the head of the mock prison set up The experiment was canceled after only six days when it was found that the psychological affects on the participants in the study were causing a strain on their well being The participants who were assigned to be prison guards quickly got used to the idea that they had power over the prisoners who suffered greatly psychologically and some had to be let go even before the six days were up because of the study s affects on the idea of being a prisoner and the unfair treatment that the guards were willing to administer People to Know Wilhelm Wundt University of Leipzig 1879 Wundt had a 68year career in Psychology was trained in medicine and was the first to open an experimental psychology lab in 1879 Word of caution here do not confuse this with the first observational psychology lab that was opened by ames ames lab was opened before Wundt s because Iames wanted to be first to have a lab for psychology in history but they are not the same thing Wundt is also associated with the German words above as well as being considered one of the two founding fathers of Psychology Iames being the second Wundt also wrote throughout his entire life up to about two pages a day Wundt is also the only person in this lecture who we were given a first name for although the others are in the textbook Iames 18421910 had a deep mistrust of absolutes and was a pluralist Iames eventually trained in medicine and opened the first demonstration lab at Harvard in 1875 Founded Functionalism and was worried about making sure that Psychology was kept in a way that kept men in the light of human beings and not purely objects of study Iames is also the founder of transcendentalism and pragmatism These terms are defined above according to lecture and for more on the specifics of the words themselves see the textbook Hall 18601944 studied child development and education in order to benefit society and opened the USA s first experimental psych lab as well as started the APA Again let me call to your attention the fact that while here we have another first experimental lab it is not the same as the labs mentioned previously Wundt did not live in the USA and therefore while Wundt did have the first experimental lab Cattell had the first experimental lab in the States The APA is the American Psychology Association B F Skinner most well known for Skinner boxes These imply what you can teach an animal to do in order to get food Skinner also wrote a book about Behaviorism titled Verbal Behavior An example of this would be teaching a mouse to run through a maze in order to reach food at the end of the maze Pavlov 18491936 Worked with Watson on Behaviorism and blank slates although that had more to do with Watson Make sure you know that he is in correlation with Watson and Behaviorism as far as lecture notes go Refer to readings to make sure that you don39t need to understand anything form the reading about Pavlov Watson 18781958 developed the idea of behaviorism and blank slates with Pavlov Watson took Hall39s place teaching at ohns Hopkins University Watson got his PhD at the University of Chicago and worked hard to turn psychology into a hard science He took the highest ranking job in psychology at just 30 years old after his boss retired disgracefully He was the second at Iohns Hopkins to retire disgracefully after Hall Noam Chomsky reviewed B F Skinner39s book Verbal Behavior in 1959 This review by Chomsky effectively ended the idea of Behaviorism which left the door open to the start of the Cognitive Revolution Galton 18221911 related to Darwin as Charles Darwin39s half cousin He was obsessed with human mutation and adaption and found that intelligence ran in families He developed the idea of eugenics meaning well born and spoke of incentives for families with lots of eminence to mate with each other to form an ideal society This idea led to the development of the terms Positive Eugenics and Negative Eugenics Eugenics both positive and negative are defined above in the vocabulary section Charles Darwin 18091882 was the co founder of evolution This idea of evolution he helped to develop talked of species that out lived other species to reproduction due to their fitness positive mutation Darwin was not the only to discover evolution We will discuss who helped in a later lecture however Darwin is the one that people remember and the more important of the two for this particular lecture We will also discuss fitness positive and what that means in a later lecture but this is the most basic definition of evolution for now
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