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BIOL 1010-01

by: hackek Notetaker

BIOL 1010-01 BIOL 1010

hackek Notetaker
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First week material. If you entered in late or want to know about how various ecosystems have affected evolution, then these notes are for you!
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Roy
Class Notes
Environmental Ecology, Ecology, Biology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by hackek Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Dr. Roy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Class Notes: Week 1 Day 1: (  Lecture  ) 08/29/16 Haploid Groups: Clusters of genetic variances that build up within a given population. ­Some parts of DNA it doesn’t matter the shape of the structure functionally Exam Dates: ­Exam 1 Oct 4 ­Exam 2 Nov 8  ­Exam 3 Dec 13 Blackboard accounts setup. The remaining document is on the material covered in the 2nd class of the week. The first class  was on going over word for word the syllabus, and if you’re taking this course, you can read it  by logging onto your blackboard account. (iClicker introduction the rest of the class, learned names and answered questions about  ourselves) Day 2: (  Lecture  ) 09/02/16   Lucy, Australopithecus afarensis, arose millions of years ago between 2.8 and 3.5 million years  ago. Charles Darwin, in 1859, published “The Origin of Species” introducing the entire scientific  community to the idea of natural selection. This brings up the question of how life arose from beginning to end. The Hadean Period of the  Earth was when it was very hot and Molten. After which it cooled and water collected along the  low points forming the ocean.  Protocells are the most primitive form of cellular organization came up relatively soon after the  cooling of the Earth and thus was the beginning of life and soon evolution. Ingredients for the origin of life:  ­Basic Elements and basic organic compounds. ­Complex biomolecules capable of replication. ­A membrane enclosure. ­Selection & Evolutionary change Video on Stars: Start out 78% hydrogen and 20% Helium, using Hydrogen fusing it into  Helium, and once it runs out, if it’s large enough and thus the gravitational force necessary to  compress it further, into elements like Carbon Oxygen, Phosphorus, and more, coincidentally the elements needed for biological life. When the fuel runs out, the star explodes, moving to the Red  Giant stage into the supernova finale, spreading the vast amounts of space in the universe with  the ingredients for life. This leads to the phrase, “We are all stardust”. Like a broth. Like a chain  reaction, each exploding star creates the ingredients for the next until enough life­forming  molecules exist for the formation of non­star solar bodies, like planets. Even other combinations  exist, such as nebuli, where stars form as well as planets from a large concentration of particulate matter.  Take Away: 1) All elements are forged in the interior of stars­when a star explodes in a  supernova elements blasted into space. 2) Many carbon­based molecules were brought to Earth by Asteroids and comets. 3) Early oceans were a chemical factors for a rich array of organic molecules. Our solar system was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. Our Earth’s system cooled sufficiently for oceans to form about 4 billion years ago. First fossils came about roughly 3.8 billion years ago. Stanley Miller Experiments tried to mimic early earth in 1953, and after just a week of  simulating that organic environment, he found evidence of new specimens. From Organic Compounds: 1) Carbohydrates 2) Lipids 3) Proteins 4) Nucleic Acids Can all be made. RNA: Thought to be by some as the original self replicating molecule. ­RNA is included in many modern cells & biochemical cellular reactions. The problem with DNA for the question of what came first, is DNA is needed to make proteins,  but proteins are needed to make DNA. Ribosomes act as catalytic functions thanks to the 1982  discovery by Altman & Cech. RNA Replicases were also found to catalyze their own synthesis. Ingredients for the Origin of Life: 1) Basic elements & organic compounds 2) Complex Biomolecules capable of replication 3) Membrane Enclosure 4) Evolutionary change Protocells: Lipid Bilayer made of phospholipids having a hydrophilic head & 2 hydrophobic tails. When  exposed to water, it spontaneously forms. Protocells with higher RNA content outcompete protocells with no or little RNA. RNA’s must be replicases and mutation rate will generate better versions and enhance  competition with other protocells. Merging with other protocells can bring RNA with other capabilities into the protocell. Protocells  generally are either big or small, due to competition of food resources.  Ending Video: Living things are made up of CHNOPS elements in an organized structure. MRC Global is one of the big companies racing to create tiny life forms to turn non­life into life. It’s  actually not that hard, time consuming, or easy to make life. While a virus has been created man  made, an actual living organism has yet to be made. It has also been found that biochemicals  can form containers on their own. 


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