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PHY 102

by: stephanie rodriguez

PHY 102 phy 102

stephanie rodriguez

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Notes from first day of class until week 7.
Intro to atoms and astrology
Dr. Christensen
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by stephanie rodriguez on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phy 102 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Christensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to atoms and astrology in Physics at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
10/10/2016 ▯ Conceptual Science ▯ Chapter 1 ▯ Aristotle on motion ▯ Aristotle classified motion into categories ▯ Natural motion ▯ Very light things tended to ride ▯ Heacy things fell to the earth ▯ The heavier the faster they fall ▯ Things that were moving tended to stop ▯ Heavenly bodies (planets and stars) tended to move aacross the sky ▯ Violent motions ▯ Objects on earth only move when pushed or pulled ▯ If no force acting on them they stopped moving ▯ Aristotle was so authoritative that he was no one questioned him ▯ If Aristotle saw a ball rolling to a stop would he say ▯ A force is necessary to make it move ▯ Galileo concept of inertia ▯ LEgend of the leaning tower of pisa ▯ GALILEO SHOWED THAT DROPPED BJECTS FALL TO THE GROUND AT THE SAME TIME WHEN AIR RESISTANCE IS NEGLIGIBLE ▯ CONCEPT ▯ THINK OF A ROUGH BLOCK ON A VERY STEEP INCLINE ▯ IT WILL SPEED UP IN THE DOWNWARD DIRECTION ▯ IF WE DECREASED THE SLOP IY WILL STILL SPEED UP BUT NOT ▯ AT SOME SLOPE IT WILL SLIDE AT A CONSTANT SPEED IT WONT SPEED UP ANYMORE ▯ THINK OF A SMOOTH BLOCK ON A SLIGHT INCLINE ▯ IT WILL SLIDE AT A CONSTANT SPEED AT A EVEN SHALLOWER INCLINE ▯ Galileo realized that if we could completely remove friction an object on a horizontal surface would continue with constant velocity forever ▯ Discovery ▯ In the absence of friction no force is necessary to leep a horizontally moving object moving ▯ Experiment ▯ Balls rolling down inclined planes and then the other roll up and tend to go to the same point ▯ Conclusion ▯ The tendency of a moving body to keep moving is a natural every material object resists change in its state of motion. This property of things to resist change is called inertia ▯ The use of inclined planes for galileos experiment helped him to discover the property called inertia ▯ Mass ▯ The amount of inertia possessed by an object determines how much it resists change in motion ▯ The amount of inertia depends on the amount of matter in an object the amount of stuff it is made of ▯ Whether you are on earth or in space you are made of the same amount of natter your inertia is the same in space as on earth ▯ The amount of inertia possessed by an object depends on the amount of matter the amount of material that composes it its mass ▯ Greater mass = greater inertia ▯ Quantity of matter in an object ▯ Measure of inertia or sluggishness that an object echibits in ▯ Mass is not weight ▯ Anvil is weightless in space ▯ Anvil is still very massive in space ▯ It has a lot of mass in space ▯ It is made of a lot of matter in space ▯ It is difficult to move in space ▯ It has a lot of inertia ▯ Weight ▯ Amount of gravitational pull on an object ▯ Proportional to mass ▯ Twice the mass = twice the weight ▯ Half the mass half the weight ▯ Weight ▯ the amount of gracitational pull on an object ▯ proportional to mass ▯ mass ▯ involves how much matter an object contains ▯ volume ▯ involves how much space an object occupies ▯ a heavy parachutist has a greater terminal speed compared with a light parachutist with the same size chute because the heavier person ▯ has to fall faster for air resistance to match his weight ▯ when a 10 kg falling object encounters 10 N of air resistance its acceleration is ▯ less than G ▯ Forces and interactions ▯ Force is simply a push or a pull ▯ Interaction occurs between one thing and another ▯ When you push against a wall you’re interacting with a wall ▯ Newtons third law of motion ▯ Law of action and reaction ▯ Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first ▯ Action and reaction forces ▯ One force is called the action force; the other force is called the reaction force ▯ Are copairs of a single interactions ▯ Neither force exists without the other ▯ Are equal in strength and opposite in direction ▯ Always act on different objects ▯ Simple rule to identify action and reaction ▯ Action ▯ Object A exerts a force on object B ▯ Reaction ▯ Object B exerts a force on object A ▯ Action and reaction on different masses: ▯ If the same force is applied to two objects of different masses ▯ Greater mass object = small acceleration ▯ Smaller mass object= large acceleration ▯ Defining your system ▯ Consider a single enclosed orange ▯ Applied external force causes the orange to accelerate in accord with newtons second law ▯ Action and reaction pair of forces is not shown ▯ Consider the orange and apple pulling on it ▯ Action and reaction do not cancel ▯ Because they act on different things ▯ External force by apple accelerates the orange ▯ The apple is no longer external to the system ▯ Force pair is internal to system which doesn’t cause acceleration ▯ One of these acts by the system and the others acts on the system ▯ External frictional force of floor pushes on the system which accelerates ▯ Second pair of action and reaction forces do not cancel ▯ Work ▯ Defined as the product of force exerted on an object and the distance the object moves in the same direction ▯ Is done only when the force succeeds in moving the body it acts upon ▯ Equation ; work=dorce x distance ▯ Two things enter where work is done ▯ Application of force ▯ Movement of something by that force ▯ Work done on the barbell is the average force multiplied by the distance through which the barbell is lifted ▯ Power ▯ Measures of how fast work is done ▯ Equation ▯ Power=work done/ time interval ▯ Units in joule per second or watt ▯ 0o(one watt= 1 joule of work per second) ▯ ▯ net work= change in KE ▯ ▯ CHhapter 4 ▯ The legend of the falling apple ▯ Newton was not the first to discover gravity. Newton discovered that gravity is universal ▯ Legend – newton sitting under an apple tree, realized that the force between earth and he apple is the same as that the force between earth and the apple is the same as that between moons and plaets and everything else ▯ The fact of the falling moon ▯ We now that the moon falls around earth in the sense that it falls beneath the straight line it would follow if no force acted on it ▯ The moon maintains a tangential velocity which ensures a nearly circular motion around and around. Earth rather than into it. This path is similar to the path of planets arpund the sun ▯ The universal law of gravity ▯ Newtons law of universal gravitation ▯ Everybody in the universe attracts every other body with a mutually attracting force ▯ For two bodies this force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them, ▯ F=G (m1xm2)/(d2) ▯ ▯ The greater m1 and m2 = the greater the force of attraction between them ▯ The greater the distance of separation, d, the weaker is the force of attraction weaker as the inverse square of the distance between their centers ▯ The universal gravitational constant < G ▯ G is the proportionality constant in newtons law of gravitation ▯ G has the same magnitude as the gracitational force between two 1 kg masses that are 1 meter apart ▯ 6.67x 10^-11 N ▯ so G= 6.67x10^-11 N * m^2/ kg^2 ▯ f= 6.67 x 10 ^-11 ▯ ▯ Projectile motion ▯ Projectile ▯ Is any object that moves through the air or through space under only the influence of gravity ▯ Curved path of projectile (parabola) ▯ Example ▯ A stone thrown horizontally curves downward due to gravity ▯ Projectile motion ▯ A horizontal component ▯ And a vertical component ▯ Projecticle altitude and range ▯ For equal launching speeds the same range isn obtained from two different projection angles a pair that add up to 90 degrees ▯ Example : same range occurs for a 75 degree launch and a 15 degree launch of the same initial ▯ In the absence of air resistnace the speed when the cannon comes back down to the same height is the same ▯ Density ▯ Density ▯ Important property of materials (solid, liquids, and gases) ▯ Measures a compactness of how much mass an object occupies ▯ Lightness or heaviness of materials of the same size ▯ Equation ▯ Density = mass/ volume ▯ Units of ▯ Mass in grams of kilograms ▯ Volume in cm3 or m 3 ▯ Density in kg/mg3 or g/cm3 ▯ Example ▯ The density of mercury is 13.6 g/cm3 so mercury has 13.6 times as much mass as an equal volume of water (density 1 g/cm3) ▯ Weight density ▯ In equation form: ▯ Weight density = weight/volume ▯ Pressure ▯ Force per unit area that one object exerts on another ▯ Equation ▯ Pressure= force/area ▯ Depends on area over which force is distributed ▯ Units in lb/ft2 n/m2 or pa (pascal) ▯ Temperature ▯ Translation motion ▯ Rotational motion ▯ Vibrational motion ▯ Temperature is proportional to the average translational kinetic energy per particle in a substance ▯ Gas-how fast the gas particles are bouncing to and from ▯ Liquid- how fast particles slide and jiggle past each other ▯ Solid- how fast particles vibrate and jiggle past each other ▯ Thermometer ▯ Measures temp by expansion or contraction of a liquid ▯ Reading occurs when the thermometer and the object reach thermal equilibrium ▯ Infrared therm operate by sensing IR radiation ▯ Temp scale ▯ Celsius scale named after anders Celsius ▯ (1701-1744) ▯ 0degrees c for freezing point of water to 100degree c for boiling point of water ▯ Fahrenheit ▯ Named after G.D. Fahrenheit ▯ (1686-1736) ▯ -32degree for freezing point and 212 degree f for boiling point of water ▯ Kelvin scale named after Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) ▯ 273K for freezing point of water to 373 K for boiling point of water ▯ absolute zero at 0K which is -273C ▯ same size degrees as Celsius scale ▯ kelvins rather than degrees are used ▯ Kinetic theory of matter ▯ Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in motion ▯ Thermal Energy ▯ Total energy of the submicroscopic particles that make up matter. ▯ Temp ▯ Energy per molecule ▯ Amount of molecules does not matter ▯ Cup of hot coffee at a certain temp ▯ Pour half out. What is temp? ▯ Thermal energy ▯ Total energy after adding all molecules ▯ Amount of molecules does matter ▯ Cup of coffee at a certain temp ▯ Pour half out. What is the thermal energy ? ▯ Thermal energy in a sparkler ▯ Temp of spark very high (2000C) ▯ Lot of energy is small due to relatively few molecules per spark ▯ Low transfer of energy ▯ Heat ▯ Defines as a flow of thermal energy due to a temperature difference ▯ Natural direction of heat flow is from a higher temp substance to a lower temp substance ▯ Energy of transit ▯ Heat is measured in jouled, calories or caloires ▯ 1 stod calorie equals 1000 calories. ▯ 1 law of thermodynamics ▯ heat added= increase internal energy + external work done by the syste, ▯ Entropy ▯ Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system ▯ Whenever energy freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of transformation is towards a state of greater disorder and therefore toward one of greater entropy ▯ The greater the disorder => the higher the entropy ▯ 2 nd law of thermodynamics- restatement : ▯ natural system tend to disperse from concentrated and organized energy states towards diffuse and disorganized ▯ energy tends to degrade and disperse with time ▯ the amount of entropy in any system tends to increase with time. ▯ Temperature ▯ Is a function of average internal energy (kinetic translational, kinetic rotational, kinetic vibrational and potential) ▯ Is a function of average internal kinetic translational energy ▯ ▯ Average internal energy (Kinetic translational. Kinetic rotational, kinetic vibrational and potential) is directly related ▯ Average internal energy ▯ Is sometimes dominated by internal kinetic translational energy ▯ Specific heat capacity ▯ Is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 unit mass of a substance by 1 degree ▯ Thermal inertia that indicates the resistance of a substance to a change in temp ▯ Sometimes simply called specific heat ▯ Internal kinetic translational ▯ ▯ Q=c x m x delta T ▯ ▯ Q= energy requires ▯ C= specific heat ▯ M= mass ▯ Delta t = change in temp ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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