Chem 101, week 1 notes, lab and lecture
Chem 101, week 1 notes, lab and lecture Chem 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Herman on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 101 at Ball State University taught by Khisamutdinov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences in Chemistry at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chapter 1 measuring matter and energy What is chemistry Study of its matter and change “central science” Chemistry branches to all other fields of science The principle science What is matter? Anthing that has mass and occupies volume Found in 3 states/phases Solid Definite shape and volume Liquid Definite volume, not definite shape Gas Neither shape or volume Solid gas Strong attraction very weak attraction Energy plays a central role in properties of the states of matter and in changes Atoms have attractions toward each other ENERGY The capacity to do work o Motion of an object Energy is associated with changes b/n states of matter 2 types: o Kinetic energy If object is moving/ motion KE= 1/2 mv 2 M=mass V=velocity o Potential energy Energy at a steady position A rock has potential to move at a later time due to the effect of gravity acting on it. then it would have kinetic energy A can of gas has a potential to react explosively at a later time due to chemical composition Potential energy kinetic energy o Gas burn in car engine car in motion Kinetic- molecular view of o gas Kinetic forces dominate intermolecular forces of attraction Molecules have high kinetic energy Their motion draws them too far apart to interact Intermolecular forces play little to no role o Liquid Molecules are closer together Intermolecular- interaction between 2 objects Intramolecular- interaction between the same object o solids Atoms in a regular ordered pattern Intermolecular forces are storng enough to prevent molecules form moving past each other Intermolecular forces dominate kinetic forces Same substance… gas has the MOST energy Different substances as gas and liquid (at same temp): gas has weaker intermolecular forces Physical vs chemical changes Physical change o A change in the form of matter but not its identity o Ex: Ice melting Alcohol evaporation Chemical change o A change in the identity of matter o Ex: Hydrogen burns in air to make water Digestion of food Chemical properties o Chemical reactivity (lots of heat released) 2H 2g) + O (2) --> 2H O2(g) + lots of energy Examples: o Fry egg Chemical change o Making toast Chemical change o Cracking eggs Physical o Slicing bread Physical change HEAT Type of kinetic energy Energy flows from a hot object to a cooler object TEMPERATURE IS NOT HEAT! Temp is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substances Greater kinetic energy of molecules, the higher its temperature Water possesses large amounts of heat and can control temperature very easily. The study of matter requires its measurement!!!! Measurement: Describes a property Has 2 parts o Number o Unit Units o Meter length o Gram mass o Second time o Calorie Energy o Liter Volume Prefixes 9 o Giga- 10 o Mega- 10 6 o Kilo- 103 -1 o Deci- 10 o Centi- 10-2 o Milli 103 -6 o Micro- 10 o Nano- 10 -9 o Pico- 10-12 -15 o Femto- 10 Honesty in reporting measurements No measurement is exact Must take into account of precision of tool Report data with sig. fig. o The certain digits plus one uncertain digit are all sig. fig. Volume of liquid substance Volume= L x W x H 1 cm = 1 mL=1cc If an object cannot be measured easily, use water displacement method o Vf-Vi= Volume Sig.Figs Decimal present o Start counting from left to right Decimal absent o Start counting from right to left Always start counting with the first NONzero number Multiplication/division The result may have no more significant figures than the least accurate measurement Addition/subraction: o The result may have no more digits after the decimal than the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures following the decimal Exact numbers Sig. fig. in exact numbers are infinite o 142 students Unit conversions Process to convert: o Dimensional analysis Step one: Write a mathematical expression to equate supplied units with requested units Step 2: Express the conversion as two possible conversion factors Step 3: Set up the calculation so that supplied units cancel Common english-metric o 1in=2.54cm o 1m=39.37in o 1lb=435.5g o 1kg=2.205lb o 1L=1.057quarts Density d=m/v Density is independent of the amount of material Can be used like a conversion factor Example: Osmium (Os) is the densest element. If you have 106 g of Os, how much volume does it occupy in mL? (d = 22.61 g/cm3) o 22.61 g/mL
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