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Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life

by: Myrissa Webb

Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life PSYC 2010 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > PSYC 2010 - 001 > Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life
Myrissa Webb
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Lecture on 8/29/16
Introduction into Psychology
Jennifer Daniels
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life  Experimental Research  Ethical Considerations Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect  Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychology research. Experiments isolates causes and their effects  Many factors influence out behavior experiments (1) manipulate factors that interests us, while other factors are kept under (2) control  Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships Evaluating Therapies 1 Double-blind procedure  In evaluating drug therapies, patients, and experimenter's assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment  Keep bias out of the equation 1 Random Assignment  Assigning participants to experimental (writing about trauma) and control (writing about previous day) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups Independent Variables  This is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.  Example: When examining the effects of writing about trauma upon stress, what is being written about is the independent variable Dependent Variable  This is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process  "Did the independent variable have an effect?"  Example: In our study on the effect of writing about trauma upon stress, stress is the dependent variable Confounding Variable  A situation in which the independent variable is intertwined or mixed up with another, uncontrolled variable  We cannot tell which variable is responsible for changes in the behavior of interest Operational Definition:  A statement of the procedures used to define research variables  Examples: Love, Intelligence, Health, Trust Comparing Research Methods Research Basic Purpose How What is Weaknesses Methods Conducted Manipulated Descriptive To observe and Do case Nothing No control of record behavior studies, variables; single surveys, or cases may be naturalistic misleading observations Correlationa To detect Compute Nothing Does not l naturally statistical specify cause occurring association, and effect relationships; sometimes to assess how among survey well one responses variable predicts another Experiment To explore Manipulate The Sometimes not al cause and one or more independent feasible; results effect factors; use variable(s) may not random generalize to assignment other contexts; no ethical to manipulate certain variables Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life  Doubt big, round undocumented numbers as they can be misleading and before long, becomes public misinformation  Statistical Significance: The results are not due to change along; based only on numbers  Clinical Significance: It makes a difference in our lives  Just because it is statistically significant doesn’t mean it is clinically significant  Example: They are testing a sleeping pill. They find out that people who took it slept on average 20 minutes longer than those who didn’t. Statistically this is significant because there is a numerical difference (20 mins). However, it was not clinically significant because 20 minutes more doesn’t actually make much of a difference to our sleep. Describing Data  A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation my lead to incorrect conclusions Ethical Conclusions  Informed Consent: The person has to understand what they are agreeing to participate in  Confidentiality: All data has to be confidential  Debriefing: When the study is done they have to let them know what happened  Deception: They have to go through the IRB (Institutional Review Board) to research. The benefits have to far outweigh the risks of deception Other Considerations  Gender Bias  Cultural & Ethic Bias  Socioeconomic Bias  Religion Bias  And more Bias's


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