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BIOS 1000-100

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIOS 1000-100 BIOS 1000

Marketplace > Ohio University > BIOS 1000 > BIOS 1000 100
Kaitlyn Meinzer
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Week 1
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 241 views.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
BIOS 1000 The Animal Kingdom Animal Diversity Week 1, August 22, 2016 Exam 1 Wednesday, September 21 Exam 2 Monday, October 24 Final Exam 3 Friday, December 9 • Animal Earth: the amazing diversity of living creatures ◦ George Cuvier ‣ Comparative anatomist- proposed catastrophism to explain the disappearance of species in the fossil record. ‣ Believed all animals lived at once, living and extinct. ◦ Jean- Baptiste Lamarck ‣ Proposed that acquired characters could be inherited- a type of revolution ◦ Charles Darwin ‣ The voyage of the HMS Beagle ‣ Darwin’s Finches- Adaptive Radiation, different beaks on different islands, depending on what they eat. ◦ In Elizabethan England ‣ Animals were bred for extreme characteristics ◦ Gregor Mendel ‣ Experiments for Darwin in his garden ‣ Cross breeding pea plants he kept tract of plant height, shape, and color of pods, seeds, and flowers ‣ By carefully keeping track of the results of the cross breeding to see how traits are inherited ‣ Sent darwin his results • Level of Organization ◦ Cell ‣ must do everything an organism does: acquire food, move it through the call, turn it into energy, build new material, reproduce, move, communicate ◦ Tissue ‣ muscle tissue- can contract to provide movement ‣ epithelial tissue- faces the environment ‣ nerve tissue- transmits signals ‣ connective tissue- holds things together ◦ Organ ‣ An organism gets larger, these processes become more challenging. ‣ Organs and Organ Systems take on roles that used to be done within the cell. ◦ Organ System ‣ Organs and Organ Systems take on roles that used to be done within the cell. ◦ Individual Vs Colony ‣ What makes individual colony member (coral) different from a unitary individual (humans) • Produced by cloning of 'founder' individual creates genetically identical colony members which may develop different functions as colony grows. • Animal Symmetry ◦ Radial Symmetry ‣ Can be divided into similar halves by multiple planes through an axis ◦ Bilateral Symmetry ‣ Can be divided into similar halves by only one plane ‣ Only one plane produces a mirror image • Classifying Animal Species ◦ Figure 2-12: Page 20: Evolution of life in relation to earth history and oxygen availability ◦ First pre-Cambrian Animals ‣ Earliest fossils • Springgina • Kyclomedusae • Dickinsonia ◦ The Cambrian Explosion ‣ Burgess Shale Fauna (Canada) ‣ Fossils ‣ Burgess Shale Seascape ◦ Classification ‣ A goal of classification is to provide order to the enormous diversity of animals forms. Science of Systematics. ‣ Attempts to classify go back at least to Aristotle ◦ Carolas Linnaeus ‣ Devised hierarchical system of naming species, referring to as Binomial Nomenclature: Genus and Species ‣ Genus name is unique to group ‣ Species name may be used with other unrelated genera (often refers to a person or place) ◦ System of classification ‣ Species, Genus, Family, Order ‣ Kingdom • animal, plant, bacteria ‣ Phylum • defined by distinctive overall body plan such as Chordates or Mollusks ‣ Class • major subdivision of Phylum ‣ Each division can be further subdivided if needed, depending if the number of species in a group ‣ The Phylum Loriciferan, with 8 species, does not need much subdivision compared to the insects, with 1,000,000 species ◦ Relationships Among Animals ‣ Evolutionary Tree (phylogeny) • Can be found for all types of animal species ‣ The tree of life • Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes, Protista ‣ All Organisms started from the same point ◦ Sources of information come from comparative biology ‣ Comparative Anatomy ‣ Comparative Physiology ‣ Comparative Biochemistry • Molecular Biology (molecular Genetics) ◦ Major subdivisions of the animal Kingdom ‣ Parazoa ('Near' Animals, include sponges) ‣ Eumetazoa ('True' Animals) • Radial symmetry • Bilateral symmetry (most animals)


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