Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Notes PSY-P 101
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/25/15
Chapter 8 310 notes Beautiful minds video Stephen Wiltshire Autistic Drew air view of Rome perfectly Memory can be inaccurate just as it can be accurate Explains Dr Huber s argument with his wife about the van Memory persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval 3 memory processes 0 Recall retrieving previously stored info 0 Recognition identifyingmatching stored info 0 Relearning less work to remember previous info How does memory work Encoding processing info for storage Storage holding info for retrieval Retrieval reactivation and recalling info Basic Information Processing Model Developed by an IU professor AtkinsonShiffrin Model o Sensory memory energy stimuli I Duration less than 1 second I Stability 34 second echo I Echoic what did I just sayquot I Iconic after image I Often unconscious I Can filter into LTM pop out effect at party I Once attended to moves to STMWM 0 Working memoryshort term memory I Duration less than 20 sec I Capacity 7 2 Local phone number are seven digits I Stability easily disturbed Don t talk and try to do things I Conscious I EffortfulActive I Integrates new info with LTM info 0 Long term memory I Duration infinite I Capacity unlimited I Stability fairly stable I Structure connectionism neural networking Dr Olaf Sporn and Connectome Project I Activation spreading activation Memory Test Trying to remember a series of numbers Primacy effect rehearsal or elaboration Recency Effect stoic memory or still in STMWM Intermediate items The Forgetting Curve Info lost when no attempt to retain More time passes more info lost Spacing Effect distributed study better retention than massed cramming 4 Functions of STMWM 1 Auditory Rehearsal a Repeating number of chairs mirrors and lamps 2 Executive Function a Choosing what to ignore and what to attend to 3 Visuospatial sketchpad a Imagining position of furniture 4 Integration a New info into LTM Long Term Memory Stuff in Fridge LTM o Explicit Memory I Facts info experiences I Aka declarative things we can declare I Semantic meanings understandings concept based info I Episodic experiences associated with specific times and places 0 Implicit Memory I Unconscious nonverbalizable effects of experience I Nondelcarative cant declare I Procedural to do things ride bike tie shoelace drive car I Conditioned responses Joy of baseball I Time space frequency place of page read earlier I Cerebellum and basal ganglia How stuff gets into LTM 0 Dual track processing 0 Automatic processing I Implicit memory Unconscious Automatic 0 Effortless Skips info processing stages directly into LTM o Effortful processing I Explicit memory Conscious Not automatic Takes work 0 Stages of info processing 0 Occurs during sleep 1 Rehearsal repeating rereading reviewing Organization structure hierarchy 3 Elaboration distinctive memorable 5quot Ray Lewis motivational video about effort Savont with no disabilities memorizes everything Danielle Tammet had a seizure Sees colors shapes with numbers One part of brain gets damages refocuses everything to one working part Rehearsal Spacing Effect Spacing over time Testing effect answering questions about info Testing effect and distributed practice 0 Makes you learn more and retain more I Means less study time Organization Info memorable by giving it structure There was a study with two groups One group was told to remember the info and the other group was told to not remember it just organize it Both groups recalled the same amount of information o Organizing remembering Chunking organizing into manageable units 0 Credit cards numbers are in groups of 4 0 Effective Elaboration Shallow processing encoding on a basic level Deep processing encoding semantically meaningful deeper lever o Longer retention of info o More embedding in memory Selfreference effect how info describes relates to us Elaboration Strategies Mnemonics acronyms and sayings Analogies This is likesomething we already knowquot 0 Anchoring connection new info to something already in memory Metacognition knowing about our knowing Knowledge we have about our thinking Selfawareness of our thinking Selfregulation of our thinking Good students good metacognition Meaning and Memory When you provide meaning to something better memory Gist main idea Gestalt whole view Schema organized pattern plan Connection to something in memory Memory active work MURPER Mood Understanding Recall Digest Expand Review 3 types of encoding Infantile Amnesia Implicit memory from infancy retained skills Explicit memory only goes back to about age 3 0 There is a three year blank I The hippocampus is one of the last areas to develop which helps process explicit memory for storage to other brain areas Emotions and Memory Strong emotions especially stress strengthens memory formation Emotions trigger stress hormones Hormones trigger amygdala ENEquot Amygdala engages frontal lobe and basal ganglia to quottagquot memory as important 312 Notes All traumatic accident death combat disturbing Video experiences can cause PTSD Emotion can change perception and what we store in memory Video woman stuck her arm in ice to help consolidate memories Difference between man and woman 0 Use different parts of the brain amygdala Heightened emotions can makes memories more memorable and clear but not 100 accurate Retrieval of Memory LongTerm Potentiation LTP more efficient neural synaptic firing due to storage retrieval Double neural receptor sites and increased sensitivity 5 In uences on Retrieval 1 Cues and Priming Cue utilization Keys Lets see I hooked them on my belt then 0 Thinking about the last things you did Priming 0 Using something associated with info at time of encoding I Smell sight taste sound I When kids are Primed with Santa share candy Primed with Scrooge don t share candy 2 Context What was going on during encoding Memory is more easily retrieved in same context as when formed 0 Go back upstairs to remember what you went down for 3 Emotional and Physiological State Mood congruent retrieve info consistent with current emotional state or physiological state 4 Serial Position 1St and last in a series are more easily retrieved Study frequently 5 Forgetting Not exactly like a computer because we forget Good and bad Good 0 Forgetfulness is a form of freedomquot Gibran 0 We can forget traumatic experiences 0 Highly sensitive people have trouble letting things go 0 Put failures bad experiences behind us 0 Athletes actors politicians good at forgetting Bad Ruminate we think the same negative thoughts Never forget terrible things Fuel from emotional fire Learn from mistakes 0000 6 Reasons for Forgetting 1 Brain Damage Damage to mechanism Encoding Failure Don t do anything with new info Storage Decay LTP in reverse Never retrieved never encoded Use it or lose it Proactive Interference Old info interferes with new info Old info related to new info Retroactive Interference New info interferes with storage and retrieval of old Huber knows new student names but forget old Motivated Forgetting Choosing to forget or change memory Repressing bury hide from conscious awareness Not common Memory Full of Errors Memory construction select items store in memory gisting Memory reconstruction rebuild from memory To some degree all memory is false 6 Effects on Memory Error 1 2 Misinformation Effect Loftus and Palmer video of accident and asked people to report speed Incorporating misleading info into memory of event at time fo encoding and or time of retrieval Imagination Effect Picturing even can make it seem real More Vivid more likely to become memory because it activates similar brain areas Imagination In ation Effect Once we have memories we tend to add imagined details Affects both real and imagined memories Source AmnesiaMisattribution Discuss childhood memories but find out it was from movie picture etc Forgetting where story came from and misattributing source to own experience May explain d j a vu Implanted Memory Effect Loftus experiment lost in a shopping mall but never happened 0 He read a journal about it Current Viewpoint Alter memory to fit current Viewpoint How accurate is eye witness testimony