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CHE 152 Week 1 Notes

by: Tiffany Matyja

CHE 152 Week 1 Notes CHE 152

Marketplace > University of Tampa > CHE > CHE 152 > CHE 152 Week 1 Notes
Tiffany Matyja
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These are this week's notes from lecture.
General Chemistry 1
Thomas Jackman
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 152 at University of Tampa taught by Thomas Jackman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in CHE at University of Tampa.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Wednesday, August 31, 2016 Chapter 1 General Chemistry 152 E - intensive vs extensive properties • intensive means that the property does not change based on how much of the substance you have. An example of this is boiling point. The boiling point of water remains at 100 degrees C whether you have 100mL or 100L of water. Other examples include color, hardness, pressure, and density. • extensive means the property changes when the size of the sample changes. Examples include mass, volume, and length. - pure substance vs mixed substance pure substances are made up of one element, such as a solid gold ring • mixed substances are made up of more than one element, such as a brass ring • - mixtures: homogeneous vs heterogeneous • homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout. An example is a teaspoon of salt dissolved in a cup of water. Any amount of the mixture removed will have the same ratio of water to salt. heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform throughout. An example is table salt mixed • with pepper. - law of conservation of energy (E) • Lavoisier “in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.” - The E of the reactants = the E of the products - tables to know Quantity Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Temperature kelvin K Amount of a substance mole mol 1 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 Prefix Symbol Number Scientific Notation Giga G 1,000,000,000 1.0x109 Mega M 1,000,000 1.0x106 Kilo k 1,000 1.0x103 Deci d 0.1 1.0x10-1 Centi c 0.01 1.0x10-2 Milli m 0.001 1.0x10-3 Micro u 0.000001 1.0x10-6 Nano n 0.000000001 1.0x10-9 Pico p 0.000000000001 1.0x10-12 - derived units • derived units are units used for measurements. An example is density. For solids, either g/cm³ or g/mL. For gases, g/L. - uncertainty in measurement: exact vs inexact • exact measurements have no uncertainty. An example is a count; if you have a bag of jelly beans and you count that you have 20 in the bag, there is no uncertainty to that. Also, numerical definitions, such as gross=144 or dozen=12 are exact. • inexact measurements are uncertain, as any measurement has some degree of uncertainty with it. To combat this uncertainty, we use significant figures - significant figures (sig figs) • sig figs allow us to see which values in a number are certain and which are estimated. For example, in the number 6.3845, each of the digits are certain except for the last digit, 5, which is estimated. • rules of sig figs - All nonzero numbers are significant 686.34 has 5 sig figs • - Zeros between nonzero numbers are significant • 2104 has 4 sig figs; 602.03 has 5 sig figs 2 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 - Zeros at the beginning of numbers are never significant • .0052 has 2 sig figs; .00205 has 3 sig figs - Zeros at the end of numbers are significant if the number has a decimal • 10.510 has 5 sig figs - Calculations with sig figs • addition and subtraction: the answer will have the same number of decimals as the value with the least number of decimal places - 547.3+375.863=923.2 • multiplication and division: the answer will have the same number of sig figs as the value with the least number of sig figs - 6.372x2.84=18.1 • scientific notation - if we were to see the number 32,000, the number is ambiguous, so we use scientific notation. This is done by using decimals multiplied by a power of 10. 32,000=3.2x10 4 • - Laws • Law of Conservation of Mass - In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products Law of Definite Proportions • - All samples of a given substance have the same proportion of their constituent elements • in water, the ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is 8:1 • in ammonia, the ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen is 4.7:1 - Dalton’s Atomic Theory • Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms All atoms of an element are (almost) identical • 3 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 • Atoms of different elements are different • Atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds • Atoms of an element cannot be changed into atoms of another element in ordinary chemical reactions • In reactions, atoms only change in the manner in which they are found to one another 4


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