Areas of Philosophical inquiry
Areas of Philosophical inquiry PHI 151
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Ellzey on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 151 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Paula Smithka in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in Philosophical / Religious / Ethical Perspectives at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Philosophy 08/26/16 and 8/29/16 I. Philosophy is a big umbrella! a. Areas of Philosophical inquiry 1. Metaphysics-The study of the nature of reality a. If it exists it has matter i. David Lewis: There is a difference between external time and personal time X Space-time Emperical evidence: measured in a physical sense ex: appearance vs reality: chairs are solid (appearance) physicists would say that on a subatomic level the atoms are spread apart. 2. Epistemology- study of knowledge a. One bit of knowledge requires belief. (k=justified true belief) b. What counts as justification? rationalists reasons empiricists senses 3. Logic: correct reasoning a. 3 reasoning patterns i. deduction: ex. finding an unknown variable in a math problem ii. induction: generalization and predictions ex. Survey iii. abduction/inference to the best explanation- gathered info to form a hypothesis ex. Jury duty (to determine the guilt of the defendant). CSI/NCIS (go to the crime scene to gather info to determine who is guilty 4. Ethics: science of human conduct (O. Johnson) a. Prescriptive/Normative claims: how one ought to act b. Descriptive claims: how we do act (ought vs is) c. Cultural relativism: ex. Capital punishment (US says yes, France says no) i. Conflict of interest is one major problem of cultural relativism d. God/Religion- we are given moral standards by a deity i. Ten commandments e. Subjective: “what is right for me, is right for me. What is right for you is right for you. Everyone is happy” i. Problem could be one’s morals could say yes cannibalism is good but for self-protection you say no and they would think you’re in the wrong. f. Deontologism-duty i. Keep your promises and ALWAYS tell the truth ii. You promise a friend to help them move on Friday, but a better offer comes along and you still go help your friend move. 5. Aesthetics: Beauty/art Viewer a. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder 2 Art Artist 6. Social/Political philosophy a. Governments (monarchy, communism, socialist economy) b. Wars-are they morally justified? If so, on what grounds 3
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