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Chapter 2: The Chemical context of life

by: Blessing Daniel

Chapter 2: The Chemical context of life BIO 1441

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Biology > BIO 1441 > Chapter 2 The Chemical context of life
Blessing Daniel

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These notes are over chapter 2 lecture
Cell and Molecular Biology
Dr. Christensen
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, chapter2, Chemistry, Life Science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Blessing Daniel on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Christensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Cell and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life  A.) Atoms Make up all matter All matter is made up of matter  a.) Matter = Anything that takes up space and has mass  b.) Conservation of matter: Matter cannot be created or destroyed, but you can transform  the way it is.  B.) Elements are fundamental types of matter a. Elements: A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances b. Bulk Elements: Mean that we have to have large amounts of those elements. EX:  Water, oxygen. (Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen: These elements make up  a majority of the elements that we need) c. Trace elements: Play vital roles to support our lifestyle EX: Iron, we need iron to  make oxygen bind.   C.) Atoms are particles of elements  a.) Nucleus: What is in the middle, made up of protons and neutrons. And the  stuff around it is electrons.  b.) Protons: all protons are positively charged c.) Electrons: negatively charged  d.) Neutrons: neutrally charged e.) The number or protons and neutrons all have to be equal if it is a neutrally  charged atom  f.) The number of protons determine the identity of each atom, the number of  protons in each atom = atomic number on the periodic table.  D.)Ions = + or – electrons  a.) Anytime you change add or subtract the number of electrons to that atom, then the atom now becomes an ion  b.) Cations: Net positive charge, positive because positive electrons are removed  (EX: NA+ = Take one number away from the electrons. The protons will  be 11 but electrons will be 10 because it is taking away electrons) c.) Anions = net negative charge because it gains an extra negative charge  E.) # Protons + # neutrons = mass number  a. Isotopes: different forms of the same element due to a difference in the number of neutrons; different mass number.  b. Whenever you change the # of neutrons you get isotopes   c .     Neutron = # atomic mass – proton MAKE SURE TO ROUND THE ATOMIC  NUMBER IF IT IS A NUMBER LIKE 23.99 = 24  F.) Atoms are versatile a. Ions: atoms that have lost or gained electrons  b. Isotopes: atoms with different number of neutrons  c. Emerging properties: when things are adding as levels change G.)Chemical bonds link atoms a. Molecule: Two or more chemically linked atoms (EX: H O, O  C H O2, N )2, 6 12 6 2 Which is glucose)  b. Diatomic molecule: Molecule made up of two of the same elements (O , N ) 2 2 c. Compound: Molecule: made up of two different elements d. How are molecules held together? Electrons H.)Electron Determine Bonding  a .     Electrons live in a cloud or electron shell surrounding a nucleus  b.   The first ring of electrons can hold up to 2, the second can hold up to 8 c.   Whenever you have more electrons than needed then just shade the ones you need and leave the extra circles blank  d.   Make sure you spread out your circles  e.   1  electron shells: up to 2 electrons  2  electron shell: up to 8 electron  rd 3  electron shell: up to 8 electron  4  electron shell: up to 18 electrons I.)  Atoms want stability a.   Atoms want to be full they don’t like vacancy in energy shell   Electrons occupy orbitals: most likely locations for an electron   AS # of electrons increase electrons occupy new energy shells   Atoms are most stable when their outermost valence shells are  full  Atoms will share, steal or donate electrons to become most  stable  J.) Covalent Bonds Sharing outer electrons to make a chemical bound form a. Shared electrons are in the outermost energy shells = covalent bond b. ALL ABOUT SHARING!  c. It’s the number of open vacancy’s that determine the amount of covalent bounds  that can form  K.) Electronegativity contribute to polarity  An atoms ability to attract electrons  a.) Electronegativity: an atom’s ability to attract elections  b.) Nonpolar covalent bound = equal pull on shared electrons  c.) Polar covalent bound = unequal pull, when you have opposite charges on  opposite ends  d.) Delta negative:  e.) f.) Oxygen within water is highly electronegative negative  g.) The higher up and to the right you go on the periodic table those elements are  going to be the most electronegative    4 Type of Bonds  1. Ionic Bonds  a. Ionic bonds: attraction between two different ions of opposite chargers ­ Stealing electrons ­ One valance or 7 valence electrons  2. Covalent Bonds a.) Sharing electrons b.) Water is a polar covalent bond a. Polar; WATER b. Non polar; methane    3.) Hydrogen bonds b. Hystogen bond: opposite partial charges on adjacent molecules attract each other  c. 1  bond with bonds between 2 different molecules d. Hydrogen bonds are weaker than ionic bonds  e. Partial positive interacting with partial negative  f. Going to be shown by dots  4.) Van der Waals interaction  g. Occur when neighboring molecules are close proximity  h. Caused by fluctuation polarity of adjacent molecules  i. Relatively weak bonds (compared to covalent bonds)  j. This is the weakest bond  k. Going to cause partial negative electrons  l. They cause things to stick together, They’ll be able to stick together but at some  point in time they fall apart  L.) Chemical reactions make/break bonds  Remember: Conservation of matter!  # atoms in reactants = # atoms in products  a.) Conservation of matter: Matter cannot be created or destroyed  M.) Some reactions are reversible  a. 3H  2 N  2← 2NH 3 b. Equilibrium [Reactants, concentration] = [concentration Products] c. Equilibrium occurs when the forward reaction and reverse reaction occur at the  same rates  d. Sometimes conditions occur that favor one reaction direction over the other  e. They are constantly moving  Equilibrium: The rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction 


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