Week 3, (08/25) Reading Notes - Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Science
Week 3, (08/25) Reading Notes - Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Science 4100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
2.4: Neuroimaging: Looking at the Brain “Describe the four ways of understanding the human brain” Four basic areas for discussing brain function: a) Structural measures looking at physical aspects of brain b) Electrical measures connecting neurons making neural communication possible c) Processing measures that assess changes in metabolic processing (ex: blood flow as a consequence of different types of thinking) d) Other measures in neuroimaging 2.4.1 Structural Measures Computerized axial technology (CT) scans: machine makes series of x-ray images, computer assembles images so that various “slices” of the brain can be studied – allows for quick assessment of brain structure Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): machine creates a very long magnetic field, used to look at a distribution of molecules of a certain type o Advantages: makes better/more accurate image of brain and patient is exposed to less x-rays o Cannot be used with certain medical implants b/c of magnetic field response to scanner 2.4.2 Electrical Measures Single cell recording: placing a microelectrode into the brain to record the activity of a single cell Electroencephalogram (EEG) Event-related potentials (ERP’s) – “momentary changes in electrical activity of the brain when a particular stimulus is presented to a person” Transcranial-magnetic stimulation (TMS) – magnetic field produced to disrupt the electrical activity in a particular field of the brain 2.4.3 Metabolical Measures Positron emission technology (PET) scans: person injected with radioactive isotopes Functional MRI: (fMRI) 2.4.4 Other methods Lesioning: limited usefulness, but sometimes reveal secrets of cognitive process o Used w/ only two types of subjects: laboratory animals and patients with medical conditions requiring brain surgery o Site and extent of brain lesion are important guides to figuring out the kind of disruption of behavior that is observed Direct stimulation: o ‘Pioneered’ by Penfield, famous Canadian neurosurgeon o Patient remained conscious during brain surgery in his technique, with only local anesthetic to prevent scalp pain o Surgeon applies small electrical currents to exposed brain, triggering very small regions, then patient asked to answer questions or report out loud the thoughts and memories entering their awareness o By comparing reports with the different regions that were stimulated, a map of cerebral function. was developing. o Most patients reported “dream-like”quality ideas, occasionally reported memories that seemed distinct – seldom possible to check accuracy of reports o Dream-like nature suggests that they were heavily influenced by reconstructive processes (may have been false memories) o By stimulating different regions of the brain, kinds of knowledge, localization of function, and so on, in different parts of the neocortex were discovered. o Difficulties: Restricted to clinical settings (i.e., patients needing brain surgery) Organization of a patient’s brain function may differ substantially from a normal pattern, perhaps because they are epileptic, and epilepsy has noticeable consequences on memory – therefore, limits generalizability of results Special Populations: o Groups of people whose neurological condition is known to differ in regular ways from some standard o May have known neuro. disease of syndrome (i.e., Alzheimer’s, amnesia causing Korsakoff’s syndrome) o May compare various age groups – keeping in mind that neuro. machinery changes in in regular ways at different ages
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