Neolithic Revolution, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt
Neolithic Revolution, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Hist 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Waller on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohannan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Neolithic Revolution 08/22/2016 I. Paleolithic Age (400,000 – 8,000 BCE) A. Hunters and Gatherers -Takes full time to keep the group going -Very mobile with seasons and the herd they are dependent -Unsettled and Nomadic B. Cave Art Lascaux Caves - Southwest France - Used for rituals C. Gender Roles -Men were the hunters -Women were the gatherers -Equal Status because both were crucial to the survival of the clan Homo Sapiens Population limited because of spaced out babies, birth control (abortion, killing unwanted babies), and very mobile II. Neolithic Age 8,000 BC A. Agricultural Revolution - “The beginning of farming” Began in the fertile crescent because they want access to water (river valleys), started with domesticating animals (goats, sheeps, dogs) B. Results 1. Population Growth – Free to have more babies more frequently because less mobile, more time. Concentrated in Jericho 2. Commerce and Trade – One place accumulate more goods. - Wealth economy. - Each community creating surplus Commerce 3. Writing develops because people have to create accounts 4. Government develop because accumulation of goods, someone has to be in charge, defend, mediate 5. Social Stratification – Accumulation of goods creates social status. Wealthy have more stuff, poor have less stuff 6. Gender Roles – Deterioration of status of women Men Farming Women taking care of children, home 7. Public vs. Private - Public: Government, Market, Mens Sphere - Private: Home, Womens Sphere 8. Warfare – Boundary disputes, trade conflict 9. Urbanization – Farming on the surrounding area of the urban area Tigris and Euphrates River Mesopotamia sumer (subset of mesopotamia): Beginning of meso, -3200 BC clearly defined states - Back and forth between city states and empires which disunified sumer/political conflict -Empire when city state has more power and takes over all (Kish), military conflict, outsiders come in and take over(at crossroads so vulnerable, no shelter geographically), complex history Religion* polytheistic (worship multiple gods), anthropomorphized (human like) gods, worshiped bc believed gods had powers to do things that they needed, lived with constant fear that destruction was right around the corner, fear due to climate disaster and outsider conflict, believed gods were between themselves and disaster therefore they tried to keep gods happy (read constellations and animal sacrifice to figure out what gods want) -Pessimistic world view -Ziggurat architecture, Step pyramid effect constructed for religious purposes Law code* ~1900 BCE Hammurabi creates first code of law, punishment is determined depending on social status of individual, eye for an eye, first written code of law, fixed/concrete, everyone has record of it -Cuneiform in wet clay tablet, professional scribes wrote, virtue for historians is they survived, writing system developed through drawings of items, use object to reflect action or verb - Social structures hierarchy, (landowners often basis of people on top, merchants/traders, craftsmen, farmers/peasants), slave labor, fluid social structure, possible to go free-slave, slave-free, or choose to be slave, lived in towns packed with humans, lived in small jammed residence, urban Jericho Catal Huyuk Nomads Pastoralism Ancient Egypt Vocab - Pharaoh: the Egyptian word for king, most were divine - Ma’at: justice and the correct order of things; worldly order as a reflection of cosmic order, also a goddess (Gods created order out of chaos, Pharoah was in charge of maintaining order) - Hieroglyphic: a stylized picture of an object representing a word, syllable, or sound as found in ancient Egyptian and other writing systems, written on Papyrus A. - Located in northwest Africa - Nile River: flows south to north - Outside of Nile is desert - first king to united Egypt was Narmer (or Menes or Aha) who did it around 3100 BCE B. The Pyramids of Giza (2600-2500 BCE) - funery monuments - other pyramids found throughout Egypt - testify to high degree of govt. centralization and power - Pharoahs Khufus is largest - finished 1000 years before Israelites were in Egypt C. Egyptian Religion - polytheistic - pharohs were divine - The Egyptian Book of the Dead was key religious text - lots of holidays and rituals - dominated by clergy (only pharaohs got to go to heaven, later scribes were included) I. Gods: Osiris and Isis - major Gods: Osiris, Isis, Seth, Horus, Amon Re - Osiris, husband of Isis - Isis: Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus - Osiris became God of underworld - Horus became identified with pharaonic power II. Pharaoh as Horus - many but not all pharaohs identified with Horus - pharohs job was to maintain ma’at and prevent chaos - pharaoh who couldn’t stop chaos was obviousy not a God - divinity or semi divinity of leaders possible explanation for passivity of Egyptian common folk (It was sinful to go against the Gods, and if the pharaoh was a God then it was sinful to disobey) III. Hatshepsut - female ruler - master of public relations - trade instead of war - depicted herself as a man to appease religious sensibilities - chose the best scribes to run Egypt day-to-day IV. Akhenaton - some say he attempted to make Egypt kind of monotheistic - cult of Aten/Alton (the discovery of the Sun), which was new and different - much simpler than traditional Egyptian Religion - had himself depicted as he really was ex. Pot belly and all in art V. Ramses II - One of the great archetypal pharaohs - treaty of Kadesh: oldest extant written peace treaty - built many massive temples - also put his name over the names of earlier pharaohs in inscriptions Nubia: modern Sudan Refth to Nubia as Kush 25 dynasty: more powerful than upper and lower Egypt C. D.
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