History Notes from 8/29,8/31,9/2
History Notes from 8/29,8/31,9/2 Hist 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Waller on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohannan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Notes for 8/29, 8/31, 9/2 World History 09/04/2016 Ancient Kingdoms and Empires of the Middle East I. Hebrews A. Started in Mesopotamia, Abraham led them west (1900 BCE) to Palestine th Some went all the way to Egypt – 18 Dynasty Arrive in Egypt and immediately enslaved ▯ B. Moses led his people out of Egypt back east and established Hebrew Kingdom (Israel and Judah) ▯ C. King David was an excellent leader and made Jerusalem his capital ▯ D. Solomon (son of David) developed centralized government Focused on strengthening government system ▯ E. Northern Israel more modernized, has artisans, crafts men Location was very vulnerable and easy for attacks King Nebuchanezzar took over Judah and captured the higher class and sent them to Babylonian ▯ II. Religion ▯ A. Abraham was the first to embrace Monotheism (ethical) Their interpretation of God was different from the rest of the world; above life Hebrew God was all powerful and all knowing; believed God was just and merciful Believed in the covenant and agreed to God to follow the ten commandments Believed their misfortunes was due to their breaking of their covenant with God; result of their own actions Hebrew Bible: Old Testament (Canonical) ▯ III. Assyrians ▯ A. Come from Northern Mesopotamia Pastoralists – based on agriculture and animals Semi Nomadic lifestyle due to their livestock’s Relied heavily on the horse – excellent equestrians leading them to have a military advantage ▯ B. Not enough people to defend and run the government Short lived due to small numbers, big area Assyrian policy relied on violence, cruelty, intimidation ▯ IV. Persians ▯ A. Originate from modern Iran, Indo European Society (Ethnic linguistic class) Leader: Cyrus Excellent Equestrians and archers Style of administration was to let the groups stay how they were Focused on localism and central government ▯ B. Satrapy- divided section of the empire, reported back to Cyrus Left as many local officials in place as possible Relied on network of spics to keep track of his satraps ▯ C. Created central form of money (coinage); focused on taxation Taxes were regular and unpredictable Allowed tax collection to be much smoother ▯ D. He left local laws/traditions but also created Imperial laws that retained to the Empire itself Tried to leave local law codes as they were Constructs the “Royal Road” used this as a small interstate to move throughout the Empire ▯ E. Persepolis was the capital of the Persian Empire Cosmopolitan/sophisticated society – very dynamic Social elites were well educated bureaucrats ▯ F. Religion: Zoroastrianism Founder: Zarathustra Bible: Gathas God of Good: Ahura Mazda God of Evil: Ahriman Constant struggle between the Gods – Ahura Mazda won Followers of the Ahura Mazda would receive everlasting reward Followers of Ahriman would burn forever; started the idea of Satan in Christianity ▯ Ancient India ▯ I. Harappan Civilization Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (on Indus river) basis of archaeological India dravidian language, not really been able to break code Setllements: farmers, early living pattern, brass tools Declines: ~2000 BC fell into decline, seem to be due to climate change, catastrophic rain and flooding dispersed population, arrival of second group of people ▯ II. Aryan group of people: indo europeans, ‘caucasian’, Experienced widespread migration, refounded civilization Sanskrit language, oral and written Pastoralists (goat/sheep/cattle herders) not farmers ▯ A. Horseback advantage in war, war like culture, more given to conflict, didn’t hesitate to use force when needed to, Orally preserved religion, eventually written down in Vedas (4 books-oldest most important ‘rig veda’), Occupy Indus river valley and patterns of settlement, come in tribally not under one ruler Local Prince of Power: Raja ▯ A. Aryan society Caste (social group) system; born into caste and remained in the same Caste entire life; may move up after death, Varna: Caste and Color, Caste causes India racial division occurs, higher classes have lighter skin ▯ B. Caste system: very rigid, no social mobility Brahmin- priest, or families whose sons became priests Kshatriyas- warriors, defenders Vaishyas- merchants, middle class Shudras- ordinary wage earning laborers, peasants on farms Untouchables- did tasks that no one else would do, butchering animals, burying the dead ▯ C. Jati ▯ A. Sub category in caste way to advance socially when new technology comes in existence new jati occurs Jati is more Important than Caste ▯ D. Patriarchy Males>females Sati is tradition in which when a male died wife was expected to commit suicide on top of husband cremation (burn themselves alive), Sati more upper class practice ▯ E. Aryan Religion: Polytheistic, Indra god of war and Varuna god from heavens Ritual sacrifice: mysticism: the practice of someone who tries to communicate with god through prayer, meditation, etc to create a one on one relationship with god Dravidian religion: Reincarnation belief when a person died, soul was reborn into another life, reborn into another life/caste/form, form next life took was result of conduct in earlier life, law of karma, cycle of birth death rebirth, not unrelenting-goal is to end cycle Hinduism in effect 800-400 BCE, goal is to find one’s way out of reincarnation cycle, ultimately become one with Brahman (concept.. Universal soul, ultimate reality, what unites this universe) Brahman is focal point in religion ▯ III. Janinism: India: 6 century BCE ▯ A. Founded by:Mahavira, believed in Karma; find release through asceticism and non injury Karma is like a substance deposited on ones soul to encrust it Release from cycle of reincarnation wear off Karma ▯ B. Asceticism and non injury Live simple life; devotion, prayer, ruditation; monks and nuns, give up world luxury ▯ C. Mahavira life in asceticism x10 lived life in extreme poverty fasting preached non violence/ non injury to all living things (even insects) Would wear mask to avoid breathing in a bug Swept pathway before walking on it to not accidently step on one Hard lifestyle – not popular ▯ IV. Buddhism- founded by Guatama (Buddha) Founder was interested in “how do you find release?” Understanding of the nature of our existence Humans are bad because they have pain/suffering Cause of suffering? Desire, form attatchments- people, things, etc Those things can be taken from us pain ▯ A. Nature of universe change attachment leads to suffering because of inevitable change: death, broken things, etc how to cope with attatchments/suffering ▯ B. Foul Noble Truths existence in suffereing suffering springs from desire cure is extinction of desire middle way is the answer ▯ C. Nirvana reach point through spititual life, contemplation ending cycle of reincarnation giving up all desires ▯ V. Mauryan Dynasty: Founder: Chandragupta Maurya 4 century BCE th Creates single state out of Inida, political unity rd ▯ A. Ashoka (Chandraguptas grandson) (3 century BCE) Buddhist rocks or pillars all over Inidia to encourage meditation like Buddhism; encourage Buddhism sends out missionaries to actively promote Buddhism ▯ B. Evolution of Hinduism Founder: Bhagarad Gita Epic story about warrior Arjuna and right hand man Krisha Time has come to fight neighboring community, but Arjuna doesn’t want to because he knows some of them is related to them Krishna convinces him “This is your caste responsibility; its your moral responsibility; its your Dharma Krishna gave different path to end reincarnation cycle: practical/everyday path Be whatever you die well: follow morals of your case and you will be released from the cycle Important for survival of Hinduism, ensures India’s religion of Hindiusm ▯ VI. Ancient China 1 ▯ A. Dynastic Cycle: Chines historians broke up chinas history into dynasties New ruling dynasties come to power in the midst of crisis (war, rebellion, etc) Argue that they will fix things/reduce crisis Every once in a while, you get a neglecting person in a dynasty: careless crisis, war, rebellion (leads to new dynasty) ▯ VII. Early Civilzation Along yellow river (where Neolithic Rev. took place) Xia dynasty from Xion (don’t know much about them other than they were first) ▯ VIII. Shang Dynasty (1784-1050 BCE) Emperors set tone for Chinese history Military skill, equestrian, war focused (horses) ▯ A. Empire and ruler rule aread by vassals feudal vassals (hired by warriors) military vassals have close relationship with emperor (he gives them favors so they do his work) no salary, just favors ; shows loyalty system of controlling area ▯ B. Bronzes China is able to cast bronze better than any other place in the world Cast – 3D High level of technical innovation ▯ C. Religion and Anscestory Emporer is “worshipped” Dealt with famine, crisis, etc Believed emporer could fix it Emperor – focal point of religious rituals to ask heavens to make it better Randis: human sacrifice Promote power being a ruler ▯ D. Writing (came into being as a religious reason) Oracle bones Bits of bone or tortoise shell and interpret the cracks to forcast future/ see what heavens wanted them do Take metal rod and put it in a drilled hole in a bone/ it would make fractures that they would interpret too Basis of symbols 3,000 separate characters early days of writing = professional career ▯ VIIII. Zhou Dynasty ▯ A. Emergence (1122 BCE) shang are losing controls Zhoue family emerges to fix things ▯ B. mandate of heaven they claim they were “chose by the heavens” makes sure of their authority legitimates their power heavens can give and take away power other can challenge your power/argue that they lost the power ▯ C. Bureacracy – Shi Clerks/scribes known as shi Modest beginning Rely on Feudalism/vassals just like Shang ▯ D. Warring States period (403 -221 BCE) Vassals start becoming independent/become warlords A lot of fighting Backdrop to “Golden Age” for philosophy in China ▯ ▯ ▯
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