Week 3, Lecture 2 (08/25) - PSYC 4100
Week 3, Lecture 2 (08/25) - PSYC 4100 4100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
08/25/2016 ▯ Review of 08/23 activity “Simulate an Action Potential” - Answers a. It means that the post-synaptic neuron will become more positive, which means it moves closer to the threshold of its own action potential. This is an example of excitatory communication, makes neuron more likely to fire because it is moving closer to threshold. b. If Cl- comes into post-synaptic neuron, concentration becomes more negative – an example of an inhibitory effect. It is becoming less likely that the neuron will fire. c. If K channel opens, K moves from inside of post-synaptic neuron to the synapse – concentration becomes more negative, an example of an inhibitory effect. It is not the NT itself that determines excitatory or inhibitory effect, but it is 6. Nodes of Ranvier between myelinated regions on axon – action potential generated at each node – this makes message move faster along the axon Myelinated region – glial cells wrapped around the axon region Multiple sclerosis – unmyelinated axons Saltatory conduction – from French word meaning, “to jump” I. Recording from a neuron Oscilloscope used to measure electrical impulses moving through the axon to measure number of action potentials per unit of time action potentials occur extremely fast, neurons may fire rapid ap’s continuously II. Brain Imaging Activity Techniques: MRI/fMRI, EEG/ERP’s, TMS Answer questions on assigned technique a. MRI & fMRI MRI: fMRI: o a giant magnet o MRI – structural technique - Looks at soft tissue for structural disorganization when walking, hydrogen molecules point in all different directions, when place in a magnetic environment, the hydrogen molecules align The MRI ‘knocks these hydrogen molecules over’, they realign and it measures the different rates of realignments to allow differentiation of various types of tissues It is a super complicated way to get a picture of the brain More oxygenated areas will be brighter o fMRI (functional MRI) – Metabolic technique – allows us to view changes in the brain across time, can present a stimulus and view activation of specific parts of the brain o Neurons cannot store their own energy, they receive it from oxygenated blood – if a group of neurons fires, a lot of oxygenated blood rushes to the region to replenish it – with fMRI we measure the amount of oxygenated blood in the area – from this we infer that if there is a lot of blood, a lot of neurons just fired; so we measure what happens after the neurons fire and infer from that the strength of neural reaction to stimulus o MRI’s are common – located in hospitals and research facilities, more common in Japan opposed to US and UK We do have a research-dedicated MRI machine at UGA Vet school has its own MRI machine on new campus o Cost depends on strength – can go up to $3 million Most hospitals have a 1.5 tesla magnet open MRI (not enclosed in tube – good for claustrophobia) – generally low strength) – 05. tesla o Advantages: o Disadvantages: cannot have metal in the body – certain types of nonferrous metal are fine, but other types are not ▯ ▯
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