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Chapter 2 , Week 1

by: Esmeralda Gutierrez Meza

Chapter 2 , Week 1 Bio 003

Esmeralda Gutierrez Meza

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Material in Midterm
Molecular Basis of Health & Disease
Dr.Emily Reed
Class Notes
atom, Molecules, bases, acids
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esmeralda Gutierrez Meza on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 003 at University of California - Merced taught by Dr.Emily Reed in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chapter 2: Chemistry  2.1 From Atoms to Molecules ▯ EQ: What are living things made of?  Matter (has mass and takes up space) o Basic building blocks are elements  Smallest amount of elements = an atom  Made of subatomic particles:  o Protons (positively charged) o Neutrons (uncharged)  Neutrons & protons makeup the nucleus  of an atom o Electrons (negatively charged)  Electrons orbit around the nucleus  “electron shell”  Atomic number: number of protons in an atom  o All atoms of a particular element have the same atomic number   Atomic mass: number of protons & neutrons  o Number of neutrons can vary from atom to atom   “Isotopes”  some isotopes are unstable ­> decay overtime & give  off energy (“radiation”) o radioisotopes   can be useful (x­rays, PET scans, cancer  treatments), but can also be harmful in  large quantities (damages DNA)   Atoms can bond together to form molecules  o 3 different types of bonding   Ionic bonding: a complete transfer of an electron from one  atom to another   Covalent bonding: atoms share  electron(s)   (ex) if oxygen and hydrogen are sharing electrons  then it’s a covalent bond  (ex) if oxygen attracts e­ more strongly then it’s a  polar covalent bond  2.2 Water and Life   Hydrogen bonding: it can happen b/w hydrogen in a polar molecule & a  negative atom in a different molecule (relatively weak)   Water has special properties:  o High heat capacity (maintains body temperature) o High heat of evaporation (sweat cools us off) o Is a solvent (dissolves things) o Is a cohersive & adhersive  o Frozen water is less dense than liquid water   Acids when dissolved in water, release H+ into solution   Bases when dissolved in water, release OH­ or takes up H+ into solution   pH scale  o scale goes from 0 to 14   acids 0­6  neutral 7  bases 8­14   Buffers maintain the pH level stable  2.3 Molecules of Life   4 types of organic molecules  o have carbon & hydrogen   carbohydrates   lipids   proteins  nucleic acids 


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