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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 113 at Arizona State University taught by Cabirac in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General chemistry 1 in Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
CHM 113 Lecture 8-24 Chapter 1 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 3:04 PM 1.1 Si sessions Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Tonight 5:00-5:50 in WXLR A118 Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Each elementis made of the same kind of atom. Friday 10:00am-10:50MSHAL States of Matter F101 Substances can exist in the solid, liquid or gas state. Solids: • Rigid • Cannot be squashed or compressed • Fixed shape and volume Liquids: • Closely packed but not as much as solids • Not rigid • Cannot be squashed or compressed • No fixed shape • Fixed volume Gases: • Not closely packed • Not rigid • Can be squashed and compressed • No fixed shape or volume • Fill the container they are in 1.2 Classifications of Matter Any substance can exist in the solid, liquid or gas state. Pure Substances: Elements Compounds Molecules Elements, if not mixed with other elements,are considered pure substances and are composed of only one type of atom Ex: • Iron metal (Fe) • Sulfur Elements and compounds (and molecules)are considered pure substances, have definite compositions and a set of properties that are unique. KNOW: The elementnames and symbols for the first 36 elements. Compounds are combinationsof atoms of more than one type of element. Ex: • Sodium Chloride (NaCl) • Ammonia (NH ) 3 • Water Compounds are combinations of atomsof more than one type of element. Molecules: Moleculesare groups of atoms (two or more) bonded chemically Not all molecules are compounds: H is not a compound 2 NH 3s a compound Homogenous Mixtures (solutions) • Constant composition throughout Examples:air, salt water, metal alloys Heterogeneous Mixtures (solutions) CHM 113 Lecture Page 1 Heterogeneous Mixtures (solutions) Not constant compositionthroughout Examples:cookies Mixtures: Two or more pure substances that are combined physically but not chemically. 1.3 Properties of Matter Physical properties: Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance • Boiling point, density, mass, volume Chemical Properties: Can only be observed when matter undergoes a chemical change • Iron reacts with oxygen to form iron oxide, sodium reacts with water to give off hydrogen gas Identify the following as chemical or physical properties: Melting point of aluminum Ability of nitric acid to dissolve copper Density of mercury Boiling point of water Flammability of hydrogen Mixtures can have properties distinct from any of the individual substances making up the mixtures! Intensive Properties Are independent of the amount of the substance that is present (useful for identifying substances) Physical changes Changes in matter that do not change the compositionof a substance Changes of state, temperature,volume Chemical changes Chemical changes result in new substances Changes of state (phase changes) Rusting 2Na + C2 --> 2NaCl Chemical change Evidence: Gas generated (Bubbling) Heat evolved/absorbed Color Change 1.4 Units of Measurement Measurements Used to communicatequantitative information Consists of a number and an appropriate unit Ex: 1.5 yards SI Units A different base unit is used for each quantity Mass Kilogram Kg Length Meter M Time Second S or sec Metric units are based on powers of 10 Giga G 10^9 Mega M 10^6 CHM 113 Lecture Page 2 Kilo K 10^3 What is the size of an atom? Of the earth? Exponential (Scientific) Notation to express small and large numbers CHM 113 Lecture Page 3
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