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Engr 313, Week 1 Notes

by: Andres Rodriguez

Engr 313, Week 1 Notes Engr 313

Andres Rodriguez
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This set of notes covers chapters 1 and 2
Introduction to Materials Science
Dr. Amrita Mishra
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andres Rodriguez on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Engr 313 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Amrita Mishra in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Materials Science in General Engineering at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chapter 1: Introduction to Material Science and Engineering  MSE Definition: Field that studies and modifies the structure and composition of materials in order to control their properties. This is achieved through synthesis and processing. For example, carbon is added to iron in order to make iron a stronger metal, so it can have new functions. NOTE: - Synthesis refers to how materials are made by nature or man (through chemicals) -Processing refers to converting materials in something useful -Structure refers to the atoms’ arrangement in a wide variety of detail levels (molecular, sub-molecular, etc.) As engineers, we have to take into account four primary aspects when making a product: Cost/performance (behavior in an application related to the cost of production), composition, structure, and synthesis and processing. The main idea is to consider these aspects in order to maximize profit. See pages 5 and 6 for detailed examples (Section 1-1)  Classification of Materials:  Metal and Alloys: First, an alloy is formed when a metal is mixed with one or more metals and non-metals. Metals and alloys are good electrical and thermal conductors, very strong, very stiff, and ductile (flexible). Useful for load-bearing purposes.  Ceramics: Inorganic crystalline materials that are bad heat conductors due to their porosity. They are very hard and strong, but brittle at the same time (breaks without important deformations). Since very high temperatures must be reached to melt ceramics, they are used to make the tiles for space shuttles  Glasses: Amorphous (not a defined structure) materials that are thermal and electrical insulators (bad conductors). They can become stronger by thermal treatments. They play a key role in fiber optics since this industry is based on silica glass.  Polymers: Non-crystalline organic materials that are good electrical and thermal insulators; however, there are some of them that are semiconductors. Not very strong, but good in resisting corrosion. Even though they are long chains of molecules, they are very ductile. Polymers have a lot of applications going from clothes to compact disks.  Semiconductors: Also known as electronic materials, they have an electrical conductivity capacity that ranges between the ones of metallic conductors and ceramic insulators. Used to enable electric devices such as transistors, which are employed integrated circuits.  Composite: Formed from the combination of two or more materials, usually with the purpose of creating properties that cannot be found in a single material. The advantage of composites is that you can have a material that is lightweight but strong and ductile at the same time, which is very useful in industrial applications such as the production of aircraft and aerospace vehicles (carbon fiber). Concrete, plywood, and fiberglass are some of the most common composite materials. Strength Order: Metals and Alloys > Composites > Ceramics > Polymers  Functional Classification of Materials:  Aerospace: Light materials such as wood, aluminum alloys, silica, plastics, among others.  Biomedical: Plastics, titanium alloys, and nonmagnetic stainless steel are used to make artificial organs, bone replacements, orthodontic braces, and cardiovascular stents. Ceramics like lead zirconium titanate (PZT) are used in ultrasonic imaging systems.  Electronic Materials: Silicon semiconductors are used to make integrated circuits for computer chips. Barium titanate and tantalum oxide are used to make ceramic capacitors.  Energy and Environmental Technology: Uranium dioxide and plutonium are used as fuels in the nuclear industry. Glasses and stainless steels handling nuclear material and radioactive waste. Polymers and zirconia (ceramic) are used in the production of batteries and fuel cells.  Magnetic Materials: Cobalt, platinum, tantalum, and chromium alloys are used in the production of computer hard disks, which at the same time make use of ceramics, metallic, and polymeric materials.  Photonic or Optical Materials: Silica is used in the production of optical fibers. Semiconductor detectors and lasers used in fiber optic communications are made of optical materials. Amorphous silica is used to make solar cells.  Smart Materials: PZT can undergo stress, which produces a voltage. This effect is used to produce devices like a spark generator for gas grills as well as sensors that can detect underwater objects. Magnetorheological fluids (MR fluids) are used in cars’ suspension systems.  Structural Materials: Designed to carry some kind of stress. Steels, concrete, and composites are used in the construction of bridges and buildings. Steels, glasses, composites, and plastics are used in the car production industry. For more general information see diagram in page 11 (Figure 1-6)  Classification of Materials Based on Structure:  Crystalline: Long range order materials which atoms are arranged in a periodic fashion  Amorphous: Short range order materials that are randomly arranged.  Single Crystals: Crystalline materials that have the form of one crystal.  Polycrystalline: Crystalline materials that have many crystals or grains.  Grain Boundaries: Regions between individual crystals in a polycrystalline material that can be seen since the crystals do not follow a pattern, they are oriented in different directions (non-uniform structures). Chapter 2: Atomic Structure  The Electronic Structure of an Atom: NOTE: Not all the elements follow the Aufbau principle (Figure 2-7 in the book)  Valence: Number of electrons in an atom that participate in chemical reactions and bonding. It can be determined by counting the number of electrons in the outer s and p energy levels.  Electronegativity: Tendency of an atom to gain one more electron  Periodic Table:  Rows refer to quantum shells  Columns refer to the number of electrons in the outer s and p energy levels. They correspond to the most common valence  Carbon based polymers appear on Group 4B  Groups 1 through 5B contain ceramics, which are usually based on the mixture of many elements. Oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen are also ceramics  Groups 1 and 2 contain metallic materials. Transition metal elements are also considered metallic materials  Groups 2B and 6B contain the elements that can be mixed to form semiconductors. Some elements in Groups 3B and 5B can also be combined to create semiconductors  Trends:  Atomic Bonding:  Metallic Bond: Metallic elements donate their valence electrons, so atoms can be surrounded by electrons (electron sea). Valence electrons move freely in the electron sea and associate with atom cores. The bond is produced by the mutual attraction of the positively charged ion cores to electrons.  Covalent Bond: Very strong bonds that are formed when two or more atoms share valence electrons, where each sharing represents one covalent bond. Bonds must have a directional relationship (formation of angles between bonds). Polymers are a great example of covalently bonded materials.  Ionic Bond: Formed when oppositely charged ions (cations and anions) are attracted to one another. This happens when there is more than one type of atom in a material because an atom may donate its valence electron to another atom. This take us to the situation where both atoms have filled or emptied their outer energy levels and have acquired an electrical charge. The one that donates the electron is going to become positively charged (cation) whereas the one that receives the electron is going to become negatively charged (ion). Now, the attraction previously explained occurs. Glasses and ceramics are good examples of ionic bonding.  Van der Waals Bonding: Force generated when molecules or atoms have an induced or permanent dipole moments attracting each other. There are three types pf van de Waals interactions: - London Forces: Interaction between two dipoles that are induced in atoms or molecules. - Debye Interaction: Interaction between an induced dipole and a molecule that has a permanent dipole. - Keesom Interactions: Interaction between permanently polarized molecules. Check Section 2-5 of the book for more detailed information.  Binding Energy and Interatomic Spacing:  Binding Energy: Energy required to create o break a bond. Ionically bonded materials have high binding energy (electronegativity difference) whereas metals have a low binding energy (similar electronegativity).  There is a relation between modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) and the slope of the force-distance curve. A material has a high modulus of elasticity when having a steep slope (higher binding energy and melting point). This means that a greater force is required to stretch the bond.  The modulus of elasticity does not highly depend on the microstructure. On the other hand, it can be related to the stiffness of bonds between atoms. Check Section 2-6 of the book for more information


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