Week 2-Letcure Notes
Week 2-Letcure Notes Hist 1010 - 003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Cook on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel F. Giblin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
CHAPTER 2 EURASIA: Bodies of water: Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Caspian Sea Aral Sea Prominent peninsulas: Arabian Peninsula India Malay peninsula Korean peninsula Mountain Ranges: Himalayan Mountains Hindu Kush Mt. Pamir Mt. Tibetan Plateau (not very good trade routes because of the elevation and terrain, 4,500 m) Caucasus Mountains THE STEPPE: grassland without trees. Not located near the mountain ranges, very arid. Horses are the most abundant animal. Great place for nomads because of easy movement. (North of Black, Caspian, and Aral Seas stretching to the Korean peninsula) The desert stretched from the Sahara through the middle east stopping in Mongolia. RIVERS OF AFRO-EURASIA: Nile River Tigris River Indus River Yellow River / Huang Ho River (next four are not important for exam 1) Yangtze River Ganges River Danube River Volga River Perks of living near the river: bountiful water supply, animals to hunt, fertile soil (before agriculture, multitude of edible plants). The Nile, Tigris, Indus, Yellow river are called “old rivers.” The Nile floods with regularity. Rivers flood over periods of time, developing separate fertile banks. The floodplain is where the materials are deposited. Formed originally from ravine that widen into valleys and ending as a river. Gets more shallow as it gets wider. A surplus of food means a higher population. Specialization of Labor: use irrigation in the dryer seasons and the rest of the seasons rely on a sort of flood control. As civilizations became more complex, they were creating a social hierarchy. VOCABULARY TERMS BRONZE: useful for tools and weapons. Happens when arsenic is combined with tin or copper and hardens. CITY: large, well-defined urban area with a dense population. CITY-STATE: political organization based on the authority of a single, large city that controls the surrounding countryside. CULT: is a religious movement, often based on the worship of a particular god or goddess. PALACE: the official residence of a ruler, his family, and his entourage RIVER BASINS: areas drained by a river, including all of its tributaries. URBAN-RURAL DIVIDE: cities appeared and people adopted lifestyles based on specialized labor and the mass production of goods. TEMPLE: building where believers worshiped their gods and goddesses and where some peoples believed the deities had earthly residence. SOCIAL HIERARCHIES: distinctions between the privileged and the less privileged. SCRIBES: those who wielded new writing tools. TERRITORIAL STATE: form of political organization that holds authority over a large population and landmass; power extends further than a city-state’s would STUDY QUESTIONS 1) Describe how cities in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and Egypt different from small villages communities across the world: 2) Compare and contrast city-state structures in Egypt and Mesopotamia: 3) Analyze the influence of long distance trade and political and economic development in urban societies. How did the contacts with others influence society? 4) Identify shared characteristics of European, Anatolian, and Aegean settlements and how they differ from urban settlements in the river basins: CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION o Has a city as an administrative center. o Political system based on control of a defined territory rather than kinship. o Many people engaged in specialized, non-food producing activities. o Status distinctions based on accumulation of wealth by some groups. o Monumental building. o System for permanent record keeping. o Long distance trade. o Major advances in science and arts. In 5,000 BCE farmers began to use irrigation: Now needed distribution of water and setting arguments of water rights. Needed specialized workers. SPECIALIZATION OF LABOR - Family units each did work within the home but only for their unit. - Technological innovation (Mesopotamian plow). - Crucial need to exchange. Growing from villages > cities – central meeting place. Serves communities in the surrounding countryside and provides for the rural areas in the cities. MESOPOTAMIA Uruk was possibly the first city, roughly 30,000 people. Using the barter system, exchange of goods and services. Writing was driven by economics. Began in 3200-3300 BCE. Pictures of tokens were the first “writing” used to keep records. Written records were to address the head of the traders: early writing consisted of pictographs and numbers. Invented beer. Created standardized weights and measures. Imported copper and tin for bronze working. Created a City-state as a self-governing center. Certain men chose to lead war and began to lead in peace time once they returned home. Sargon was said to be the intercessor between his people and God. He wore the horns of a bull to represent deity. Raised walls of the cities, assigned governors, gave land to soldiers in return for service. CODE OF HAMMURABI: kings wanted to be perceived as just. Hammurabi resides with his justice the same place that the Gods reside. o An eye for an eye (as in the old testament) o If a member of the elite strikes a member with higher power, they were flogged in public. Example of the Stratification of Justice. - Creating laws gives order and law’s advantage goes directly to those who hold a higher power. Ziggurat was a several story mud building consisting of a statue said to hold the life force of a specific deity. EGYPT The Nile river flows north from Lake Victoria to Egypt. The west bank is a sandy desert and the east bank is rocky and home to most of the Egyptian community. The Nile was the main source of travel. Agriculture directly depended on the rivers. The rivers flooded with consistency because rain hardly ever fell. Hunter and gatherer groups spoke many different languages. North Egypt expanded over the years and the Egyptians believed that their king was a god. Writing was used for record keeping until being developed into a language consisting of numbers and symbols that all had different meanings. Egypt was made up of mostly peasants. Egypt was a patriarchal society. Elite women left a “paper trail” and had at least a sort of protection in case something were to happen to their husbands. Worshiping Gods and Goddesses gave hope for another life. The chief priest was supreme in the community. Death was a journey (traveling to the afterlife had certain hazards so the “Book of the Dead” was created). Mummification provided protections. Organs were removed and put into small jars around the body, bodies were packed tightly and then wrapped in linens. The tomb you’re buried in depicted how wealthy you were. The Egyptians had tremendous advances in sciences and mathematics thanks to practicing mummification and agricultural trade creating a money flow. They have constructed the most accurate calendar. CHINA Civilizations developed around 2000 BCE. The first two major dynasties were the Shang and Zhou. Rise of cities depended on the Yellow River. They were surrounded by the Tibetan Plateau, deserts, many mountain ranges, and the ocean making trade routes scarce. SHANG DYNASTY: o Rainfall near the Yellow River is erratic. o Agriculture takes a lot of specialized workers. Have to protect from floods and has very fertile soil. o Produced Millet and Wheat. o South became more populated because it could feed more. o Where Chinese history began. o Elite warfare rode in horse drawn carriages. o Well developed language. o Used bronze weapons, ivory, and jade. o Cities were reserved. Horse drawn chariots – “war carts” – wheels made of solid wood. Weight increases the friction making it ride slowly. It holds the king, general, or commander (not particularly a part of the fight, they went from being the best fighter to being the lead commander who doesn’t really have a hand in the fight.) VOCABULARY TERMS ANCESTRIAL WORSHIP: major form of religious belief in China CHARIOTS: DIVINATION: technique involving diviners applying intense heat to the shoulder bones of cattle or to turtle shells and interpreting the cracks that appeared on these objects as auspicious or inauspicious signs from the ancestors regarding royal plans and actions. HAMMURAPI’S CODE: elevated a balancing act into an art form, became this legal code. MICROSOCIETIES: dispersed across a huge ocean, toward fragmentation and isolation. POLITIES: politically organized communities or states. TERRITORIAL STATE: exerted power over distant hinterlands TRANSHUMANT MIGRANTS: people who herd the animals like some of the pastoral nomads but. VASSAL STATES: allies who had to pay tribute in luxury goods, raw materials, and manpower as part of a broad confederation of polities under the king’s protection. VEDIC PEOPLE: arrived with an extraordinary language (Sanskrit) STUDY QUESTIONS 1) Explain the differences between pastoral migrants and transhumant migrations. 2) Describe the Shang state in east Asia and how it was different from the territorial states in western Afro-Eurasia: 3) How similar/different were the early state structures in Europe and the Central Andes?
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