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Chapter 2 (continued) , Week 2

by: Esmeralda Gutierrez Meza

Chapter 2 (continued) , Week 2 Bio 003

Marketplace > University of California - Merced > Bio 003 > Chapter 2 continued Week 2
Esmeralda Gutierrez Meza

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Material in midterm
Molecular Basis of Health & Disease
Dr.Emily Reed
Class Notes
Carbohydrates, Lipids, DNA, RNA, nucleic, acids
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esmeralda Gutierrez Meza on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 003 at University of California - Merced taught by Dr.Emily Reed in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.

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Date Created: 08/29/16
 Dehydration Reaction o Subunits are linked together by the removal of water  Hydrolysis Reaction  o Subunits break apart by the addition of water  2.4 Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates: for short­term (& sometimes long­term) energy storage o Monosaccharides  The building blocks of carbohydrates  It’s a simple sugar (made of one)    Glucose (C6H12O6)  Disaccharides  Made of two (2) sugars   Created by joining two monosaccharides  o Dehydration reaction between the two glucose  molecules   Reversible by hydrolysis reaction   Polysaccharides   “Complex carbohydrate” o Starch (plants) o Glycogen (animals) o Cellulose (plant cell wall)  2.5 Lipids   Lipid: organic compound that is more soluble in nonpolar solvents  o Fats   Animal origin   Solid at room temperature   Cushion for organs   (ex) lard and butter  Usually called a Triglyceride because of its three part  structure   o Oils  Plant origin  Liquid at room temperature   (ex) corn oil and soybean oil o Phospholipids   Similar to triglyceride, but one of the fatty acids is replaced  by polar phosphate group   Primary component of the cell membrane  o Steroids   Structured is made up of four fused carbon rings   Cholesterol  Testosterone (men)  Estrogen (women) 2.6 Proteins   Proteins: macromolecules containing amino acids o  Diverse functions in the body   Transport, enzymes (to carry out reactions), hormones, and  antibodies    Shape of protein determines the function (denatured proteins lose functionality)  Denature is when proteins undergo irreversible  change  o Amino acids: the building blocks of proteins o Proteins levels of structure   Primary structure   Sequence of amino acids  Secondary structure   Alpha helix (pleated sheet)  Third Structure   Final shape of Polypeptide (three or more amino acids are linked by peptide bonds)  o Peptide bonds is a covalent bond between two  amino acids    Fourth Structure   Two or more associated polypeptides  2.7 Nucleic Acids   Nucleotides: the building blocks  o Include DNA and RNA  o Its function is to make proteins and pass down generic information   DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): nucleic acid that stores info. on how to  copy & replicate, but also specifies the order in which amino acids must  join together in order to make protein   o Sugar group is Deoxyribose   DNA is double stranded  DNA structure with base pairs  o A (adenine) with T (thymine)  Thymine is only found in DNA   Bond contains two hydrogens  o G (Guanine) with C (Cytosine)   Bond contains three hydrogens   RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): type of nucleic acid that has multiple uses  o Sugar group is Ribose  o RNA is single stranded   RNA structure with base pairs   A (adenine) with U (uracil) o Uracil is only found in RNA   G (guanine) with C (cytosine)   ATP (Adenosine Diphosphate): nucleotide with three phosphate groups  attached to the molecule   o Takes energy from one place to another to another 


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