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PSY 2300 week 1 notes

by: Regan Notetaker

PSY 2300 week 1 notes PSY 2300

Regan Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover in class material and pages 1-20 of the textbook
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Seth Marshall
Class Notes
Psychology, Freud




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 08/29/16
Developmental Psychology with Dr. Marshall Week 1 These notes cover week 1 in class notes and pages 1-20 of chapter 1 in Experiencing the Lifespan by Janet Belsky. Key words are green, and Key people are red Theories of People Thomas Hobbs (1588-1679): Hobbs had a relatively negative view, believed that all human beings were inheritably selfish, everyone was born with “original sin”- desire to defy rule and order or misbehave from birth; proposed suppressing original sin with strict government. John Locke (1632-1704): Believes everyone is born with a blank slate, and the environment determines if humans are good or bad Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778): Believes people have innate goodness, and other people/ society mess up that goodness Hobbs, Locke, and Rousseau are considered philosophers; the first actual psychologists were Wilhelm Wundt (Germany) and William James (University of Pennsylvania). The distinguishing characteristic between psychologists and philosophers is that psychologists test their theories. An example of this is that a Philosopher might sit in his arm chair and wonder, is it raining? While the psychologist goes outside in the weather to determine for himself if it is raining. Empirical Method (Psych Scientific Method) Observation: I see a dark cloud biographer. He said observations should be systematic, unobtrusive, Analysis: Dark cloud means it might rain soon and immediately recorded. Also stressed the importance of comparing Hypothesis: It is going to rain your work with other observers. Test: goes outside to see if it’s raining Scientific Theory: It was raining, therefore when there are dark clouds it rains. Psychological Observation began with the “baby biographers” like Charles Darwin. Darwin studied the behavior and closely documented the progress and milestones of his children, laying the foundation for developmental psych. Wilhelm Preyer (not to be confused with Wilhelm Wundt) was also a baby Observation Analysis Hypothesis test Scientific theory is made Collecting Data  Foundation: Reliability and Validity are key. Is our measure consistent? Are we measuring what we really want to measure?  Methods of collecting data: observation, interview Naturalistic Observation: observing kids in a playground. Structured Observation: in a lab Arnold Gesell (1880-1961) childhood milestones, There are limitations to observation. 1) subjective bias, 2) subjective reactivity (Hawthorne effect) 3) reliability and validity Correlation ≠ Causation *below is a snapshot from my in class notes* According to my notes, shoe size vs IQ has .00 correlation Monthly salary and year salary have a perfect correlation because they are essentially equal, just on different scales of time. This is a 1.00 correlation Grades vs. beers drank the night before an exam has a negative correlation, this one is about -0.75. Correlation scale is -1 – 1: -1 being a perfect negative correlation, 1 being a perfect positive correlation, and 0 being no correlation at all. Independent variable- what do I change? Dependent variable- what do I observe? Does it work? Longitudinal- study over a long period of time, such as the course of someone’s life Chapter 1: textbook pages 1-20 Cohort- our age group, i.e. baby boomers, millennials Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures: collectivist cultures focus on family values, companionship, etc over individual productivity (America) while individualist cultures focus on individual productivity over family (China) Operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner): we act the way we do because we are reinforced for acting that way. (dog sits because he gets a treat, dog does not go outside of electric fence because he gets shocked) Cognitive behaviorism- aka social learning theory: People learn by watching others and our thoughts about the reinforcers determine our behavior Self efficacy- belief in ourselves Freud: early childhood, unconscious motivations, influence behavior Attachment theory- important to have a caregiver to attach to during early childhood development; important to have a significant other Nature vs. Nurture 1. Nature (genetic tendencies) shape nurture (life experiences) 2. We need the right environment (Nurture) to fully express talent/ potential (Nature) Hope this helped you guys out! If you have any questions, email me at


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