New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

ZOOLOGY 110 (Cell Structure and Function) Week One Notes

by: Priscilla Lopez

ZOOLOGY 110 (Cell Structure and Function) Week One Notes Zool 110 (44727)

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > zoology > Zool 110 (44727) > ZOOLOGY 110 Cell Structure and Function Week One Notes
Priscilla Lopez
GPA 3.68
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Zoology 110

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Zoology 110 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Bird Migration Chemistry and Organic Chem. Diffusion Osmosis Cell Structure Energy Metabolism
Zoology 110
Dr. Eve Robinson
Class Notes
Zoology, animals, Science




Popular in Zoology 110

Popular in zoology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Priscilla Lopez on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Zool 110 (44727) at Humboldt State University taught by Dr. Eve Robinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Zoology 110 in zoology at Humboldt State University.

Similar to Zool 110 (44727) at Humboldt


Reviews for ZOOLOGY 110 (Cell Structure and Function) Week One Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/29/16
Week One ZOOLOGY 110 Cell Structure and Function What is a Animal? ➔ Zoology: the scientific study of animals. What is Science? ➔ An organization body knowledge about the natural world. ◆ Key Features: Repeatable,  testable/falsifiable  Bird Migration ➔ How do they find their way? ◆ Angle of the sun ◆ Landforms  ◆ Earth Magnetic Field Gustav Kramer’s Experiment ➔ Birds use the sun as a navigational cue ◆ Using mirrors, Kramer altered the apparent  position of the sun. The birds shifted their migratory  direction by the same angle. ➔ Birds compensate for the sun’s apparent motion. ◆ Caged starlings alter the direction of their  attempted migratory movement with respect to the artificial  sun, as if assuming that the ‘sun’ is moving. Observational and experimental method in zoology ➔ Both are useful ◆ Observation:is the key underpinning of all  science but.. ◆ Experiments:are necessary to test hypotheses  about the causes of zoological phenomena  ◆ Controls: are necessary to make sure you are  testing the right thing.  What is an animal? ➔ Nuclei:in cells (eukaryotes) ➔ Many Cells:(multicellular)  ● Have development ➔ Eat Other Things: (Heterotrophic) ➔ Move ➔ Other Ideas: ◆ Hearts, complex organs  ◆ Consciousness, response to stimuli ◆ Kingdom Animalia ● = one branch of the tree of life ● “Monophyletic group ● All descend from a single common  ancestor. Cladograms & Animal Diversity ➔ A cladogram is a diagram used in cladistics which shows  relations among organisms.  ➔ A cladogram is not, however, an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants or how  2 much they have changed; many evolutionary trees can be inferred  from a single cladogram. Major Groups in life ➔ Prokaryotes (no nucleus) ◆ Bacteria  ◆ Archaea ➔ Eurkaryotes (w/nucleus in cell ◆ Protists (single­celled)  ◆ Plants ◆ Fungi ◆ Animals Diverist of animals ➔ More than 1.5 million species named to date ➔ Approximately 35 phyla of animals, each with a distinct body plan Structure and function ➔ Animal Structure ➔ Structures are the buildings blocks by which organism live ➔ Differences in structures between organisms usually reflect  differences in organism's way of life. ➔ Focus not just on the structure, but the function. Life is Chemistry ➔ Organisms are made of huge variety of specific chemical  compounds. ➔ The metabolic reactions that power living organism's are  chemical  reactions. ➔ Animal food consists of chemicals contained in other  organisms. Life is Organic Chemistry ➔ Living organisms composed of organic compounds ➔ Made of Carbon (C) chains with other molecules attached ➔ Other elements found include Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O),  Nitrogen (N)  plus many others at trace levels ➔ Nothing "organic" about organic compounds    ● gasoline, pesticides, etc. are organic (C, H, O) Rules of Organic Chemistry 3 ➔ Organic molecules are held together by chemical bonds  (“covalent”  bonds)  ➔ Basic rules of bonding:  ◆ C makes 4 bonds  ◆ N makes 3 bonds  ◆ O makes 2 bonds  ◆ H makes 1 bond Carbohydrates ➔ Consist of C,H,O only  ➔ 3 Types: ◆ 1) Simple sugars or monosaccharides ◆ 2) Disaccharides ◆ 3) Polysaccharides ● Starch ● Cellulose ● Glycogen ● Chitin Lipids ➔ also consist of C, H, O ➔ insoluble in water (oil and water  don't mix)  ➔ 3 classes:  ◆ 1) Neutral fats (aka triglycerides)  ◆ 2) Phospholipids  ● (one end hydrophobic, one end   hydrophilic) ◆ 3) Steroids Amino Acids and Proteins ➔ consist of C, H, O, N ➔ 20 or so distinct amino acids (AAs) found in animals  ➔ AAs hooked together (peptide bonds) to form long chains   (polypeptides)  ➔ These combine and fold to make proteins(one or more   polypeptide chains) ➔ proteins have a huge variety  of functions:  ◆ structural proteins:  ● e.g., collagen, keratin ◆ contractile proteins:    ● e.g., actin & myosin of muscle  ◆ enzymes: act as catalysts to  regulate all  metabolic reactions ● e.g., lactase, splits lactose into   component sugars 4 Nucleic acids ➔ Long polymers of nucleotides ➔ Two types of nucleic acids:   ◆ DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  ◆ RNA (ribonucleic acid)  ➔ carry genetic information (DNA)  ➔ allow that information to be translated into protein (RNA) Cells ➔ Cells are the fundamental unit of life ◆ Earth is 4.5 billion years old  ◆ Earliest fossils 3.8 billion years old  ◆ Earliest animals 700 million years old ➔ Origin of life: Importance of self‐replicating cells Plasma Membrane ➔ Phospholipid Bilayer Plasma Membrane Proteins ➔ Control movement of substances in and out of cell  ◆ Ion channels  ◆ Permeases  ◆ Transporters ➔ Attach cell to surroundings  ◆ To other cells (junctional complexes)  ◆ To extracellular matrix (integrins)  ➔ Receive information and pass into cell  ◆ Receptors Cell Structure ➔ Nucleus ◆ Contains genes –  ● chromosomes containing  DNA bound to  histone  proteins  ◆ Surrounded by a double  membrane  ◆ DNA transcribed into  messenger RNA ◆ Cytoplasm  ● cytosol  ● cytoskeleton  ● organelles:  ○ Mitochondria ○ Ribosomes ○ endoplasmic  reticulum 5 ○ Golgi  apparatus Diffusion ➔ From areas of high  > low  concentration  ➔ Slow process Osmosis ➔ Diffusion of water  ➔ Occurs through specific channels (aquaporins)in cell  membrane ◆ Isotonic solution = same concentration as  cytoplasm  ◆ Hypertonic solution =  more concentrated  ◆ Hypotonic solution =  less concentrated Mediated Transport ➔ Gated channels  ◆ Chemically gated ◆ Voltage gated ➔ Facilitated transport ◆ In the direction of concentration gradient  ◆ No metabolic energy  ◆ Many substances cannot get through the cell  membrane ◆ Permeases help by forming pores that let specific molecules through ➔ Active Transport ◆ Against concentration gradient ◆ Requires energy (in form of ATP)  ● Example: Sodium potassium pump  ● [Na+] high outside cell, [K+]  high  inside cell Endocytosis and exocytosis ➔ Endocytosis: The taking in of matter by a living cell by  invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole. ➔ Exocytosis: a process by which the contents of a cell  vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the  vacuole membrane with the cell membrane 6 Genes and protein Synthesis ➔ DNA holds all genetic information  ➔ Genetic information is in sequence of nucleotide bases  ➔ Four different bases:  ◆ A –adenine  ◆ G –guanine  ◆ T –thymine  ◆ C –cytosine  ● DNA is a double helix, with two   strands of nucleotides held together  by complementary base pairing:  ○ A with T  ○ G with C Dna replication ➔ DNA replication occurs by unzipping  helix  ➔ each strand serves as  template for  synthesis of new   complementary  strand Transcription ➔ Protein synthesis begins with transcription  ➔ Copying of DNA information to RNA  ➔ This RNA is called messenger RNA(mRNA) Translation ➔ mRNA goes to cytoplasm to a ribosome  ➔ mRNA nucleotide sequence is used to code for amino acid  sequence of a polypeptide(protein)  ➔ 3 nucleotides form a codon coding for 1 amino acid   ➔ transfer RNAs(tRNAs) bring  amino acids to ribosome Central Dogma of Molecular Biology ➔ (Replication) Dna thru Transcription thru translation  Proteins Regulation of gene expression ➔ Genes are not always coding for proteins, can be turned on  or off  ➔ transcription factors most important level of regulation Energy Metabolism ➔ All (99.9%) of energy for life comes from  sun ➔ Trapped by plants as chemical bond  energy in carbohydrates  by process of  photosynthesis:  ◆ 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy > C6H12O6 + 6O2 7 ➔ Released by animals for their use by  eating plants or other animals, burning  carbohydrates  ◆ C6H12O6 + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O +  energy ➔ Energy can be released  anaerobically (without oxygen)  or  aerobically  ➔ Energy released is used to  make ATP from ADP + Pi  ➔ Much more efficient to do so  aerobically   ◆ (~34 ATPs vs. 2 ATPs)  ➔ ATP is used to supply energy  for cell processes:  ◆ ATP > ADP + Pi + energy   8


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.