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Microbiology Week 1- Friday

by: Victoria Tarkington

Microbiology Week 1- Friday BIOL 230 - Microbiology

Victoria Tarkington


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Chapter 2 microbiology notes, covers the chemistry side of microbiology
dr. Tirtajaya
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tarkington on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 230 - Microbiology at Charleston Southern University taught by dr. Tirtajaya in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Charleston Southern University.

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Date Created: 08/29/16
Micro notes chapter 2  Atoms and elements o Chemistry  The study of atoms and molecules o Atoms  Basic unit of matter  Neutrons, protons, electrons  Nucleus and “cloud” (electron shell)  Valence electron: important in bond formation  Atomic number and atomic mass o Elements: one type of atom  Cannot be chemically separated into simpler parts  Living matter: hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur are major in bio/life  Isotopes  Same # of protons, diff # of neutrons o Ionic bonds  Atoms gaining or losing electron  Produces charged atoms, or ions  Cations and anions  Strong attraction between negative and positive charges: salts and electrolytes  Ex. Sodium chloride- sodium has one electron/ chlorine needs one, they became positively charged ion ( sodium becomes positive, chlorine becomes negative) o Covalent bonds  Atoms share electrons  Polar  Unequal sharing of electrons  Nonpolar  Equal sharing of electrons  Compound  If molecule made of different elements  Ex. NaCl, H20  Organic compound  C-H bond, carbon hydrogen o Hydrogen bond  Type of polar covalent bond  Hydrogen atom in polar molecule attracted to electronegative atom  Weak and short lived  Numerous bonds add strength  The presence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms: electronegative  Creates numerous hydrogen bonds  Chemical reactions o Making and breaking of bonds o Reactants and products o Synthesis or decomposition o Covalent bond  Difficult to break  Strong  Requires biological catalyst called enzymes  Chemical components of the cell o Water  Polar nature  Attracts other water molecules  Attracts other charged substances  Excellent solvent  In NaCl solution  H atoms attract Cl- ions  O atoms attract Na+ ions  Water is the solvent, salt ions are the solute  Substances with charges are hydrophilic  Non polar molecules are hydrophobic o pH and buffer  pH  a logarithmic measure of the amount of H+ ions  scale of 1 to 14  water: splits into H+ and OH-  in pure water: pH =7, = concentration of each H+ and OH-  acid releases H+, base releases OH-, balance shifts  Buffer  Stabilizes pH  Maintains intracellular pH of cells  Organic molecules o Contains carbon and hydrogen o Long chains or rings o Single, double, or triple bonds o “macromolecules” o Polymers and monomers  Major classes of organic molecules o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Proteins o Nucleic acids  Carbohydrates o Functions and characteristics  Diverse group: sugars and starches  Energy source and energy storage  Carbon source  Genetic material component  Structural components of the cells o Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen  1:2:1  CH2O o Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides o Monosaccharides  Basic unit of a carbo  Typically 5 or 6 carbons  5 carbon: ribose, deoxyribose  6 carbon: glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose (structural isomers) o Disaccharides  Two monosaccharides  Covalent bond  Dehydration synthesis between hydroxyl groups froms= loss of water  Reverse reaction is hydrolysis= addition of water: yields two monos  Common ones  Sucrose: glucose +fructose  Lactose: glucose+ galactose  Maltose: glucose+glucose  Covalent bond between two monos is called glycosidic o Polysaccharides  Many units  Monosaccharides or their derivatives  Linear (non branching) or branched structures  Examples  Cellulose: plant cell walls  Starch: energy storage in plants  Glycogen: energy storage in animals and some bacteria  Lipids o Characteristcs  Non polar, hydrophobic, diverse  Simple lipids  Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen  Triglycerides- the most common simple lipids in nature  Fatty acids  Long chain of C, with carboxyl group at one end  Saturated o No double bonds, tight packing o Solid at room temperature  Unsaturated o Dbl bonds o Kinks prevent tight packing o Liquid at room temp  Mono and polyunsaturated  Compound lipids  Other elements than C,H,O  Phospholipids  Phosphate gives polarity o Hydrophilic head o Hydrophobic tail  Lipid bilayer o Polar head oriented outwards toward aqueous environments  Cytoplasmic membrane  Proteins o Polymer of amino acids  Amino acids  Central carbon, carboxyl group, amino group  Side chain (Rgroup) differs  Infinite possible combinations from 20 different subunits o Functions  Catalyze reactions: enzymes  Transport molecules  Move cells  Provide cellular framework  Sense conditions outside cell  Regulate gene expression o Sequence shapecharacteristics o Amino acids  Characterized by side chain  Non polar  Polar  Charged – or +  D- and L- amino acids “stereoisomers” =mirror image  Glycine****slide pics*** doesn’t have mirror image o Peptide bonds  Hold amino acids together  Covalent bonds btwn carboxyl group and amino group  Dehydration synthesis  Protein in one or more long polypeptides folded to create functional molecule  Protein structure levels  Primary  Secondary  Tertiary  Quaternary  Determinants  Hydrogen bonding  Polar groups  Nonpolar groups  Covalent bonds***** quizlet stopped here***** o Levels of protein structure  Primary  Number and sequence  Determines the final shape  Secondary  Repeated coiling or folding in localized regions  Tertiary  Overall 3-D shape of a folded polypeptide  Quaternary  Two or more polypeptide chains o Denaturation  Loss of protein shape  Loss of function  High temperature  Extreme pH salinity  Different solvents  Nucleic acids o Functions  Carry genetic information o Characteristics  Polymer of nucleotide  A pentose sugar  A phosphate group: C5  A nucleobase (base or nitrogen base): C1  Nucleobases  Purines(dbl ring) : adenine and guanine (A and G)  Pyrimidines: thymine, cytosine, and uracil (T, C, U) o DNA  Deoxyribonucleic acid  Linear chain of nucleotides  Covalent bond between phosphate group: C3 or C5  Backbone or alternation sugar and phosphate molecules  Hydrogen bonding between nucleobases  Complementary base- pairings o A-t o G-c  Double stranded helix o RNA  Ribonucleic acid  Mostly single stranded  DNA vs RNA  Sugar: deoxyribose vs. Ribose  Nucleobase: thymine vs. Uracil o ATP  Adenosine triphosphate  Adenosine= adenine+ ribose  Triphosphate= 3 phosphate groups  “energy currency”  3 phosphate groups  Negatively charge  Highly unstable o Releases energy as bonds break


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