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History 1377 LearnSmart Notes Chapter 1

by: Sarah Brucker

History 1377 LearnSmart Notes Chapter 1 Hist 1377

Sarah Brucker

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I've tried to condense chapter 1 of LearnSmart as much as possible, and separate everything into groups so that it will be easier to retain. I hope you like it :)
The U.S. to 1877
Mathew Clavin
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Brucker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1377 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Mathew Clavin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see The U.S. to 1877 in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
LearnSmart Notes Chapter 1 People Henry VIII: Broke with the Catholic Church and established the Church of England. Mary I: Restored England’s ties to Catholicism and harshly punished dissenters. Elizabeth I:  Broke England’s ties with Rome, as well as England’s alliance with Catholic Spain Dignitary for whom the colony of Virginia was named James I:  Favored English Catholics and “high church” forms of religious ceremony. Issued a new charter in 1606, which divided North America between Plymouth merchants and  London group merchants interested in colonization efforts  Columbus:  Believed the earth was smaller than it is and that by sailing west he would reach Asia relatively  quickly His primary goal for the voyages of 1493 and 1498 was to reach East Asia by sailing west It took him 10 weeks to reach the New World in 1492.  Bartholomew Dias: Sailed around the southern tip of Africa at The Cape of Good Hope in 1486.  Ferdinand Magellan: Named the Pacific Ocean after weathering the stormy waters of the Strait of  Magellan, the ocean seemed peaceful by comparison.   John Cabot: A Genoese sailor who led the first English­sponsored expedition to North America.  Sir Humphrey Gilbert: Colonizer who attempted to establish a British colony in Newfoundland Sir Richard Grenville: Helped establish Roanoke (established on an island just off the coast of North  Carolina).  Sir Francis Drake: Sea captain who helped inhabitants of the first Roanoke colony to escape Martin Luther: Openly challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church in 1517, beginning the  Protestant Reformation in Germany.  Archaic Period Bering Strait: Once believed to be the way that all early migrants to the Americas came (via ancient  land bridge.  The Clovis People: The name given, by scholars, to the early land­based migrants to North America  (named after the town their weapons and tools were first discovered).  Native Americans Mestizos: The name given to European­Native Americans by the Spanish Colonials.  Incas: created the largest empire in the Americas.  Mexica: What the Aztec people referred to themselves as.  Mayan creations developed/used before European arrival: An accurate calendar A numerical system A written language The peoples of Cahokia were known for having a large population. The Conquering of the Native Americans Reasons the Conquistadors were such jerks to the Native Americans: They were accustomed to waging war in a ruthless manner They thought the natives were savages and less than human Cortés’s “weapon” was successful at conquering the Aztec population because: The Aztecs had no immunity to smallpox Smallpox was deadly European diseases introduced after their arrival in the 1500s: The Measles Smallpox Influenza Typhus New World Exploration Beginnings of exploration in North America: The goal was to find passage through the New World to the Orient. England’s first documented contact with the New World came just 5 years after Spain’s. Recent scholarship suggests that some early inhabitants of the Americas sailed from Asia.  Reasons that spurred European exploration and colonization during the late 1400s and early 1500s: Exotic tales brought back by travelers to the East Desire for spices, fabrics, and other goods from Asia Long and difficult overland routes to Asia Important benefits of New World colonies: Created new markets for English goods Fostered economic independence for England Reduced poverty, unemployment, and overcrowding 17  Century Colonies:  Colony:                                          Colonial Power:  Quebec                    France        Newfoundland       England (Ireland was England’s first colonial experience)     Manhattan Island       Holland             Florida         Spain th The English felt freer to establish colonies in the New World during the late 16  century because  England successfully challenged Spanish sea power.  French settlers in America: Established close relations with Native Americans France’s first colony was in Quebec. Dutch trappers moved into the interior toward the Appalachian Mountains.  The Spanish Empire at its height included:  Costal areas of South America Mexico The southern U.S. Various Caribbean islands The Spanish fort established in 1565 at St. Augustine, Florida served only as a small military outpost.  The prevalence of the Catholic Church in South/Central America and Mexico was due to Spanish  priests and missionaries. Farming/Animal Domestication Farming: The latest subsistence method to arise in the Archaic Period.  Crops first encountered by Europeans in the New World: Gourds (i.e. Squash, Pumpkins…) Potatoes Maize Attributes that distinguished agricultural societies in the Northeast from those in the South and  Southwest: Lack of permanent settlements Farming methods to quickly exploit the land Crops/domesticated animals introduced by Europeans to the New World: Horses Pigs Cattle Sheep Sugar Bananas  The horse gradually became central to the lives of many native and transformed their societies.  Europe in the 1400s Aspects of the newly emergent monarchies and nation­states in Europe during the 1400s: An interest in financing exploration A desire to increase national wealth and power Results of European population growth during the 1400s: Rise of a new merchant class Increased interest in trade Mercantilism:  Wealth is finite, and a nation or person can grow rich only at the expense of others. Its principles guided the economic policies of virtually all European nation­states.  Early Slavery in the Americas The majority of the people forcibly taken to the New World came from Guinea (West Africa). Matrilineal: Heredity and inherited property is traced through the mother rather than the father (African societies tended to use this method). African slaves were predominantly: Criminals People unable to repay debts Captives from wars Slave trade domination:  Century:                           Country:    16    Portugal    17    Holland    18    England Religions Puritans: Favored simplified forms of worship and reduced power for bishops Called for sweeping reforms of the Church of England Separationists: Formed independent congregations in defiance of the law Anglicans: Acted as members of the Church of England Calvinists: Believed in the doctrine of predestination (the idea that God chose some people to be saved and others to be damned) Encouraged people not only to be spiritually virtuous, but economically productive as well Calvinism spread rapidly throughout northern Europe, gaining adherents in France and  England.  Material taken from The Unfinished Nation, 7  edition by Alan Brinkley


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