New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 97 Lecture 3 Class Notes

by: Idda Colcol

Biology 97 Lecture 3 Class Notes 61860

Marketplace > Irvine Valley College > Biology > 61860 > Biology 97 Lecture 3 Class Notes
Idda Colcol
Irvine Valley College

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Biology 97 Lecture 3 Class Notes 8/29/2016 Intro Powerpoint Slides 53-63 Mendel Powerpoint Slides 1-24
Genetics and Evolutionary Biology
Amy McWhorter
Class Notes
independent assortment, crossing, over, non-disjunction, monohybrid, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype
25 ?




Popular in Genetics and Evolutionary Biology

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Idda Colcol on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 61860 at Irvine Valley College taught by Amy McWhorter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Genetics and Evolutionary Biology in Biology at Irvine Valley College.


Reviews for Biology 97 Lecture 3 Class Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/29/16
Bio 97 (#61860): Lecture 3 Class Notes 
 (Intro Powerpoint Slides 53-63 & Mendel Powerpoint Slides 1-24) I. Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis A. in oogenesis, still have germ cells (stem cells) during fetal development B. all cells are arrested in meiosis I, prophase I 1. these cells are called primary oocytes C. secondary oocyte is frozen in meiosis II, metaphase II, until sperm comes in contact D. first polar body can’t be fertilized, has 2c E. after 2 rounds of meiosis, we only end up with 1 egg and 3 polar bodies II. The Origins of Genetic Variation A. new combinations of genes as a result of independent assortment, random fertilization, and recombination III.Independent Assortment of Chromosomes A. independent assortment - different alleles are randomly distributed 1. chromosome pairs align differently of each other in metaphase of meiosis I 2. different combinations of alleles occur when gametes are formed a) 2^23 - combination of alleles lining up IV. Random Fertilization A. One egg is randomly fertilized by one sperm 1. egg is not more or less likely to be attracted to certain sperm 2. sperm is equipped with different enzymes 3. egg has various barriers so not all sperm can go through 4. fertilization membrane: shakes off all other sperm so only one sperm can penetrate through V. Crossing Over A. crossing over - genetic exchange in material that involves breaking one maternal and one paternal chromosome B. DNA can be broken and rejoined with opposite alignment C. missing of one paternal and one maternal 1. gives variation to expression of alleles 2. process happens three-dimensionally VI. When Meiosis Goes Awry in Humans A. non-disjunction - usually incorrect separation B. aneuploidy - genome is partly changed VII.How Accidents During Meiosis Alter Chromosome Number A. to disjoin - to separate B. non-disjunction - failing to separate, staying together VIII.Nondisjunction in Meiosis I or II A. n+1 - full set plus one extra chromosome B. fails to separate sister chromatids during meiosis II IX. Trisomy A. this can occur for all chromosomes B. nondisjunction has same ratifier all chromosomes C. 21,18, etc - can get through fertilization but all others are lethal D. monosomy (sex n chromosome) - Turner syndrome MENDEL POWERPOINT 2 I. Mendel’s First Law: The Principle of Segregation II. Gregor Mendel - Father of Genetics A. Augustinian monk, mid-1800s III.Gregor Mendel and Laws of Inheritance A. Used garden peas because they had distinctive traits that could be carried from one generation to the next IV. Secrets of Mendel’s Success A. plants self-pollinate, self-fertilize B. kept very accurate records of offspring V. Mendel Set-Up Experiments to Answer… A. offspring is hybrid, regardless of phenotype B. when hybrids reproduced, would revert to parent phenotypes VI. Pisum Sativum: Garden Pea A. Mendel chose garden pea because it has different variants 1. 7 variants B. ability of self-pollination can be removed by taking away male-anther producing structures to cross-pollinate VII.Procedure of Mendel’s Experiment A. P: parental B. F1: first filial, can produce offspring C. F2: second filial VIII.rocedure of Mendel’s Experiments A. F1 monohybrid - hybrid/mixture for one characteristic (trait) 1. always resembled one parent B. biggest success: quantified data of offspring 1. dominant: one that appeared solely and highest frequently IX. What we learned from Mendel’s monohybrid crosses A. there is something passed on from parent to offspring B. organisms have phenotype possibility of dominant or recessive 1. dominant is visible C. pair must be cut in half during gamete formation 1. Principle of Segregation D. random fertilization 1. any gamete has equal chance of fertilizing other gametes regardless of dominant/ recessive X. More nomenclature A. no such thing as heterozygous dominant or heterozygous recessive B. heterozygous - dominant phenotype C. phenotypes are not limited to what you can see with make eye but also at molecular level 1. size of proteins XI. Punnett Square A. 1:2:1 ratio - look at genotypic ratio B. for every gene there are 2 alleles C. fertilization is random D. 4 fertilization events can take place with equal proportions XII.Using a Testcross to Determine an Unknown Genotype A. between unknown and known phenotype B. dominant phenotype - unknown genotype because it can be homozygous or heterozygous C. we know one allele: D (dominant), but not second D. known individual - homozygous recessive


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.