Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes CJ100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Heller on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ100 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Stephen Clipper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chapter 1 Crime in the United States Everyday we are confronted with reports of crime in the news media Crime and criminal justice area concern to American public The sensational crimes reported by the media do not provide a very accurate picture of the crimes typically committed, nor do they accurately depict the kinds of crime to which police respond on a daily basis Police rarely respond to the sensational crimes reported by the media An Institution of Social Control Criminal justice is an institution for social control, as are The family Schools Organized religion The media The law Defining an institution of social control An organization the persuades people, through subtle and not-so- subtle means, to abide by the dominant values of society Subtle means of persuasion include gossip and peer pressure, whereas expulsion and incarceration are examples of not-so-subtle means As an institution of social control, criminal justice differs from the others in two important ways It is concerned only with behavior that is defined as criminal It is society’s “last line of defense” against people who refuse to abide by dominant social values and commit crimes Criminal justice in the US is administered by a loose confederation of more than 50,000 agencies of federal, state, and local government Together they are commonly referred to as the “criminal justice system” The police The courts Correction The criminal justice system operates differently in some jurisdictions, but there are also similarities The Police The criminal justice response to crime begins when a crime is reported to the police, or when the police discover a crime has been committed Police investigate crime If the investigation is successful, police arrest a suspect After the arrest, the suspect is booked at the police station Arresting and Booking Arrest The seizing and detaining of a person by lawful authority Booking The administration recording of an arrest Typically, the suspect’s name, the charge, and perhaps the suspect’s fingerprints or photograph Courts After a suspect has been arrested and booked, a prosecutor reviews the facts of the case and the available evidence The prosecutor decided whether to charge the suspect with a crime If no charges are filed, the suspect must be released Pretrial Stages After the charges have been filed, the suspect is brought before a lower-court judge for an initial appearance and is given formal notice of the charges against him/ her Defendant A person against whom a legal action is brought, a warrant is issued, or an indictment is found Initial appearance A pretrial stage in which a defendant is brought In the case of a misdemeanor or an ordinance violation, a summary trail may be held In case of a felony, a hearing is held to determine whether the defendant should be released or whether there is probable cause to hold the defendant for preliminary hearing Ordinance violation, misdemeanor, and felony Ordinance violation – usually the violation of a law of city or town Misdemeanor- a less serious crime generally punishable by a fine or by incarceration in jail for not more than one year Felony- a serious offense generally punishable by confinement in prison for more than one year or by death If the suspect is to be held at a preliminary hearing find probably cause, the defendant is bound over for possible indictment or arraignment In states that do not utilize preliminary hearings, an arraignment date is scheduled at the initial appearance The grand jury determines whether these is a probably cause to believe that the accused committed the crime with which the prosecutor has charged him/her Once an indictment or information is filed with the trial court, the defendant is scheduled for arraignment About 95% of criminal defendants plead guilty to the charges against them, in the arrangement called plea bargaining Plea Bargaining The arraignment is the pretrial stage to hear the information or indictment and allow to plea bargaining Plea bargaining is the practice whereby a specific sentence is imposed if the accused pleads guilty to an agreed upon charge or charges instead of going to trial Trial If defendant pleads not guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity, a trial date is set Bench trial – a trail before a judge, without a jury If defendant if found guilty as charged The judge begins to considers a sentence Due Process The idea that we are willing the let guilty people go free in order to protect the innocent ON TEST
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