PY 101, Week 1 Notes
PY 101, Week 1 Notes Psychology 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
8/19 Psychology History of Psychology It is the study of: -the mind (mental activity) -the brain (mental activity resulting from biological processes) -behavior (observable actions) Where does it come from? Philosophy (Nature/Nurture and mind/body debates) 1879: First psychology lab First schools of thought -Structuralism: belief that conscious experience can be broken down into compounds -Functionalism: belief that the mind helps human adapt to environmental demands Approaches to psychology Biological approach: Focus on genetic, hormonal, and neurochemical explanations of behavior. -SSRI’s to treat depression to change chemical make up in brain Psychoanalysis: Innate drives of sex and aggression. Social upbringing during childhood. -Make the unconscious conscious. Cognitive Psychology: Innate mental structures such as schemas, perception and memory, and constantly changed by environment. -Like a computer processing information Humanism: Maslow emphasized basic physical needs society influences a person’s self concept. -Focuses on how an individual perceives and interprets Behaviorism: All behavior is learned from the environment through conditioning -Humans are like a machine Social approaches Emphasizes the power of the situation and the way individuals are shaped via their interactions with others. Research Methodology What is scientific inquiry? Psychologists study the what, when, and why of behavior and mental processes. Scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method -More objective than casual observations -Systematic: procedures follow orderly steps that are carefully planned -Free from bias 3 Essential Elements -Theory: interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed snd makes predictions about the future -Hypothesis: specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct -Research: conduct, analyze To evaluate research, you need to think critically. Critical thinking -evaluate information -question claims -seek definitions Noncritical thinking leads to incorrect solutions -ignoring evidence -misunderstanding or not using statistics -seeing relationships that do not exist -using relative comparisons -accepting after-the-class explanations -taking mental shortcuts -failing to see our own inadequacies(self-serving bias) -failing to accurately judge source credibility
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