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Lecture Notes for Chapter 1

by: rayparkerjr

Lecture Notes for Chapter 1 Justice 2004

GPA 3.0

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These notes are the lecture notes presented in class.
Crime and Criminalities
Abdullah Cihan
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Justice 2004 at East Central Community College taught by Abdullah Cihan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Crime and Criminalities in Criminal Justice Studies at East Central Community College.

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Date Created: 08/29/16
Criminological Theories Chapter 1 What is theory?  Theories are proposed explanation to problems or questions. Use data, research and everything to prove theory.  They help provide answers and guidance as to why things are the way they are  Criminological theories explain why crimes are committed and who commits them. Theory and Hypothesis  Hypothesis: o Is based on an informed, educated guess about the relationship btwn two or more variables  Independent Variable (IV) and Dependent Variable (DV) o Cause and Affect  Ex) Men are more likely to be commit crime* than women  Theory is a very broader concept than the hypothesis. *Crime (crime rates, self report crimes, delinquency, anti social behavior…..) is the main dependent variable (DV) for almost all criminological theories. 4 Classifications of Criminological Theories  Macro Theories o Cover major groups of people such as a society o Why are there differences in groups (macro) in terms of criminal activities? o Crime rates in urban and rural areas, cities, neighborhoods…  Micro Theories o Deal with small grps of ppl possibly individual o Why are some individual more likely to commit crimes  Ex) relationship btwn raace wealth gender crime  Micro can be aggravated to Macro  Structual Theories o How community structure influence crime  Poverty, inequality, unemployment, and crime. These theories usually use macro level explanations of crime.  Processual Theories o How someone’s position in the social structure make him criminal  (particular life history, interaction with particular individuals). These theories usually use micro level explanations of crime. 3 ways on how to evaluate theories  Logical Consistency the theory should make sense, meaning that the central idea should be clear and concise.  Scope Refers to how much or how many types of crime or deviance the theory covers.  Parsimony deals with the simplicity of the criminological theory?  Testability: To be valid and ultimately useful, a theory must be able to be subjected to scientific research. o Theories can be testable or untestable (or tautological)  Empirical validity: The theory has been supported by research evidence o If a theory cannot be supported, it is not valid. Concepts of causality and determinism  Causality means that one thing produces another. Does the appearance of variable X (independent variable) cause variable Y (dependent variable)? Three required elements  Association (relationship)  Time order (temporal order)  Non-spuriousness Usefulness and policy implications  Theory can lastly be evaluated through usefulness and implications  Criminological theories can be used as a guideline for understanding and preventing crime


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