Intro to Geology: Week 1 (Week of 8/21)
Intro to Geology: Week 1 (Week of 8/21) Geos 1113
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geos 1113 at University of Arkansas taught by Mohamed Aly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see General Geology in Geology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Introduction to Geology Notes Week 1 (Week of the 21 ) st 1. The Science of geology Physical Geology Examines Earth materials and seeks to understand the many processes that operate on our planet Historical Geology Seeks an understanding of the origin of Earth and its development through time To Study the Earth’s surface and its Origin Radioactive Dating is a tool used to age rocks and minerals Risk is the possibility of Hazard Geologic hazards are natural processes that adversely affect people Natural resources addressed by geology include: Water, soil, metallic and nonmetallic minerals, and energy 2. The Development of Geology Catastrophism Earth’s landscapes were shaped primarily by catastrophes (James Ussher, Mid 1600s) Uniformitarianism: the physical, chemical, and biologic laws that operate today have operated throughout the geologic past (James Hutton, 1795: Theory of the Earth) James Hutton Theory of the Earth 1795: There is a gradual change of the Earth, and not a spontaneous catastrophe How do you track the Earth? The same way you track a person…By looking at their records (Rocks) Earth is 4.6 billion years old The oldest surface rocks on Earth are 4 billion years old (highly weathered) 3. The Nature of Scientific Inquiry The goal of science is to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make predictions Scientists collect data through observations and measurements Hypothesis: a tentative (or untested) explanation o It must fit observations and be testable Theory: a welltested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts We can predict the future by looking at the Earths past 4. Earth as a System The Earth has four spheres Hydrosphere the water portion (71%) Atmosphere the gaseous envelope Geosphere the solid Earth (most extensive) Biosphere all plant and animal life The four spheres on Earth do not operate independently from each other A System a group of interacting parts that form a complex whole 5. Early Evolution of Earth The universe began with the Big Bang (13.7 billion years ago) The Nebular Theory proposes that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula 6. Earth’s Internal Structure Crust Earth’s thin, rocky outer skin, divided into the continental and oceanic crust Mantle 2900 km thick and composed of peridotite Core composed of an ironnickel alloy The middle of Earth is made of dense material, and the surface is made of less dense materials that floated to Earth’s surface The middle of the Earth is a solid covered in a liquid Pressure keeps the center core solid Lithosphere Rigid outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the upper mantle Asthenosphere Soft, weak layer below the lithosphere Transition zone Zone marked by a sharp increase in density below the asthenosphere Lower Mantle Zone of strong, very hot rocks subjected to gradual flow below the transition zone Outer core liquid outer layer of the core (responsible for the Earth’s magnetic field) Inner core solid inner layer 7. Rocks and the Rock Cycle There are 3 major rock types Igneous rocks – Cooling and solidification (or crystallization) of magma (molten rocks) Sedimentary rocks – Sediments are derived from weathering of preexisting rocks Metamorphic rocks – Formed by “changing” preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks – Driving forces are heat and pressure Week 1 Lab 8. Pages 5154 (Pay attention to definitions and Silicate Structure) Chemical Elements – The most fundamental substances into which matter can be subdivided by chemical means Atom – The smallest particle that possesses the properties of a particular element (nucleus consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons) Protons – Positive electrical charge Neutrons – Electrically Neutral Electrons – Negative electrical charge Ions – Atom is electrically neutral because protons equal neutrons Electron Donor – When two atoms come in contact the one with few electrons in its outer shell becomes an electron donor Electron Recipient – When two atoms come in contact the one near capacity in its outer shell is the Electron Recipient Mineral – Naturally formed, solid, chemical substance having a specific composition and a characteristic crystal structure Crystallography – The study of crystal structures, and deals with the principles of geometry Halite – Common table salt that consists of sodium a chlorine arranged in an ion ratio of 1:1 Ionic Bonding of Sodium and Chlorine – Analogous to that to that of Lithium and Fluorine Silicate Minerals – A group within the Chemical classification of minerals which crystalizes from molten rock Silica Tetrahedron – Fundamental building block of Silicates Complex Ion – Consists of more than one element Silicate Anion – Negatively charged silicooxygen molecule 9. Pages 5659 (Focus on physical properties of minerals, and be able to recognize minerals) Crystal Form – External manifestation of an internal crystal structure Fracture – Chemical bonding is so uniform in all directions Conchita – Smoothly produced fracture Uneven – Unevenly produced fracture Luster – Mineral reflects light Metallic – Luster characteristic of metallic sulfides Color – Least diagnostic property of a mineral Streak – Color of a streak Specific gravity – Ratio of weight of the mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water Density – Weight per unit volume of a substance 10. Pages 6061 (Familiarize yourself with the table 3.3)
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