New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Geology: Week 1 (Week of 8/21)

by: Brandon Notetaker

Intro to Geology: Week 1 (Week of 8/21) Geos 1113

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Geology > Geos 1113 > Intro to Geology Week 1 Week of 8 21
Brandon Notetaker
GPA 3.5
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Geology 

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Geology  notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes are what we went over in class, and useful information for the lab.
General Geology 
Mohamed Aly
Class Notes
Geology, geology notes




Popular in General Geology 

Popular in Geology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geos 1113 at University of Arkansas taught by Mohamed Aly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see General Geology  in Geology at University of Arkansas.


Reviews for Intro to Geology: Week 1 (Week of 8/21)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/29/16
Introduction to Geology Notes Week 1 (Week of the 21 ) st 1. The Science of geology  Physical Geology ­ Examines Earth materials and seeks to understand the many  processes that operate on our planet  Historical Geology ­ Seeks an understanding of the origin of Earth and its  development through time  To Study the Earth’s surface and its Origin  Radioactive Dating is a tool used to age rocks and minerals  Risk is the possibility of Hazard  Geologic hazards are natural processes that adversely affect people  Natural resources addressed by geology include: Water, soil, metallic and nonmetallic minerals, and energy 2. The Development of Geology  Catastrophism ­ Earth’s landscapes were shaped primarily by catastrophes (James  Ussher, Mid­ 1600s)  Uniformitarianism: the physical, chemical, and biologic laws that operate today have  operated throughout the geologic past (James Hutton, 1795: Theory of the Earth)  James Hutton Theory of the Earth 1795: There is a gradual change of the Earth, and  not a spontaneous catastrophe  How do you track the Earth? The same way you track a person…By looking at their  records (Rocks)  Earth is 4.6 billion years old  The oldest surface rocks on Earth are 4 billion years old (highly weathered) 3. The Nature of Scientific Inquiry  The goal of science is to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make  predictions   Scientists collect data through observations and measurements   Hypothesis: a tentative (or untested) explanation o It must fit observations and be  testable   Theory: a well­tested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees  best explains certain observable facts  We can predict the future by looking at the Earths past 4. Earth as a System  The Earth has four spheres  Hydrosphere ­ the water portion (71%)   Atmosphere ­ the gaseous envelope   Geosphere ­ the solid Earth (most extensive)   Biosphere ­ all plant and animal life  The four spheres on Earth do not operate independently from each other   A System ­ a group of interacting parts that form a complex whole 5. Early Evolution of Earth  The universe began with the Big Bang (13.7 billion years ago)  The Nebular Theory proposes that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an  enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula 6. Earth’s Internal Structure  Crust ­ Earth’s thin, rocky outer skin, divided into the continental and oceanic crust  Mantle ­ 2900 km thick and composed of peridotite  Core ­ composed of an iron­nickel alloy  The middle of Earth is made of dense material, and the surface is made of less dense  materials that floated to Earth’s surface  The middle of the Earth is a solid covered in a liquid  Pressure keeps the center core solid  Lithosphere ­ Rigid outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the upper mantle  Asthenosphere ­ Soft, weak layer below the lithosphere  Transition zone ­ Zone marked by a sharp increase in density below the  asthenosphere   Lower Mantle ­ Zone of strong, very hot rocks subjected to gradual flow below the  transition zone   Outer core ­ liquid outer layer of the core (responsible for the Earth’s magnetic field)   Inner core ­ solid inner layer 7. Rocks and the Rock Cycle  There are 3 major rock types  Igneous rocks – Cooling and solidification (or crystallization) of magma (molten  rocks)   Sedimentary rocks – Sediments are derived from weathering of preexisting rocks   Metamorphic rocks – Formed by “changing” preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or  other metamorphic rocks – Driving forces are heat and pressure Week 1 Lab 8. Pages 51­54 (Pay attention to definitions and Silicate Structure)  Chemical Elements – The most fundamental substances into which matter can be  subdivided by chemical means  Atom – The smallest particle that possesses the properties of a particular element  (nucleus consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons)  Protons – Positive electrical charge  Neutrons – Electrically Neutral  Electrons – Negative electrical charge  Ions – Atom is electrically neutral because protons equal neutrons  Electron Donor – When two atoms come in contact the one with few electrons in its  outer shell becomes an electron donor  Electron Recipient – When two atoms come in contact the one near capacity in its  outer shell is the Electron Recipient  Mineral – Naturally formed, solid, chemical substance having a specific composition  and a characteristic crystal structure  Crystallography – The study of crystal structures, and deals with the principles of  geometry  Halite – Common table salt that consists of sodium a chlorine arranged in an ion ratio  of 1:1  Ionic Bonding of Sodium and Chlorine – Analogous to that to that of Lithium and  Fluorine   Silicate Minerals – A group within the Chemical classification of minerals which  crystalizes from molten rock  Silica Tetrahedron – Fundamental building block of Silicates  Complex Ion – Consists of more than one element  Silicate Anion – Negatively charged silico­oxygen molecule 9. Pages 56­59 (Focus on physical properties of minerals, and be able to recognize minerals)  Crystal Form – External manifestation of an internal crystal structure  Fracture – Chemical bonding is so uniform in all directions  Conchita – Smoothly produced fracture  Uneven – Unevenly produced fracture  Luster – Mineral reflects light  Metallic – Luster characteristic of metallic sulfides   Color – Least diagnostic property of a mineral  Streak – Color of a streak  Specific gravity – Ratio of weight of the mineral to the weight of an equal volume of  water  Density – Weight per unit volume of a substance 10. Pages 60­61 (Familiarize yourself with the table 3.3)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.