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Nutrition Food and You, Notes for Week 1 and Week 2 Day 1

by: Smetana Larson

Nutrition Food and You, Notes for Week 1 and Week 2 Day 1 nsc170

Marketplace > University of Arizona > nsc170 > Nutrition Food and You Notes for Week 1 and Week 2 Day 1
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About this Document

These are notes from the lecture with supplemental information from the textbook
Nutrition Food and You
Dr. Ricketts
Class Notes
nutrition, research




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smetana Larson on Monday August 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to nsc170 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Ricketts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
Nutrition, Food, and You  Dr. Ricketts  Wednesday 8/24/2016  Unit 1: Food is more than what we eat    1. We use energy to build tissue and keep us going  2. Nutrients are building blocks  3. Food can kill you or cure you  4. There are 6 essential nutrients  a. Carbohydrates  ​ (macronutrient / energy)  b. Fats​ (macronutrient / energy)  c. Proteins​ (macronutrient / energy)  d. Vitamins  ​ (micronutrient / no calories)  e. Minerals  ​ (micronutrient / no calories)  f. Water ​(most necessary)  5. Energy suppliers  a. Carbohydrates (4 cal/g)  b. Fats (4 cal/g)  c. Proteins (9 cal/g)  d. Alcohol (7 cal/g)  6. Energy Balance​: we need energy to keep us alive, and ideally we consume the same  amount of energy we expend  7. Malnutrition​: dietary inadequacy that can be affected by… low­income risk, eating  disorders, substance abuse, mental challenges  a. You can be malnourished while overeating  8. Non­nutrients  a. Bad  i. Alcohol  ii. Food additives  b. Good  i. Phytochemicals  ii. Antioxidants  9. No such thing as good/bad foods  a. Empty calorie foods  ​ are high calories from unhealthy fats, added sugar, alcohol  b. Nutrient dense foods  ​ have a high ratio of vitamins/minerals/nutrients to calories  c. Ex. 400 calories of donut is empty calories, while 400 calories of fruit is nutrient  dense  10. Variety, Moderation, Balance  a. No such thing as a “perfect” food  b. Variety is key  c. Balancing calorie intake and activity level is healthy  11. Functional foods  a. Boosting nutrient intakes (supplements)  b. Managing specific health issues  c. Probiotics    Monday 8/29/2016  Unit 2: Nutrition Information – Fact or Fiction?    1. Why do people conduct science?  a. People used to think the world is flat  b. Our knowledge is a building in process  c. If it can't be replicated then you have to go back to square one because the brick  did not hold any weight  d. All scientific research is dynamic  2. When researching heart disease, scientists couldn't use humans so they used hamsters  a. Hamsters process cholesterol differently than humans  b. Therefore we built a building of knowledge with fault base bricks  3. Collecting Science Based Evidence  a. Scientific Method  i. Natural observations  ii. Physical observations  b. An ​experiment   i. Tests a scientific question  ii. Look at safety and ethical concerns  iii. Develop a test that avoids bias  c. Applying the scientific method  i. Observe  ii. Develop a question  iii. Test  iv. Collect information  v. Analyse the findings  1. If it doesn’t match your observation this is called false  vi. Form conclusions  vii. Share the results  viii. Conduct more research  d. Research Design  i. The scientific question being asked is how the research will be set up  1. Example: Why do we get type 2 diabetes  ii. If the question is: Does having a certain percentage of body fat cause  type 2 diabetes?  1. Develop an experiment when overweight people lose weight and  normal weight people gain weight to see how it affects whether or  not people get diabetes  iii. SIDE NOTE: ​BMI i​ s Body Mass Index  iv. Epidemiology​ is an informational study (ie. you aren’t changing anything)  1. They tell you relationships and correlation but they do not  conclude causation (correlation does not imply causation)  v. Human / lab animal studies​ can imply cause and effect because they  require manipulation and intervention  4. The “human” component  a. What scientists know at this point is that the human component leads to error  i. Scientists want their hypothesis to be true  ii. Scientists doesn't have the best technology to determine the “true” result  iii. Scientists might not properly analyse results and reports which causes  inaccurate results   b. Human Intervention Studies  i. Research applied to the human situation  1. Experiment (intervention) studies  a. Double Blind Study: n ​ either researcher nor research  participant knows which group people are in  i. Treatment group  ii. Control group  b. Significance of secrecy  i. Treatment  ii. Perceived treatment (​placebo) ​   iii. Placebo Effect: ​  person thinks they are being given  the actual treatment  2. Population Studies  a. Chronic disease vs. cause of death cs. Specific population  b. Data  i. Physical examinations  ii. Large populations  iii. Surveys  1. Personal histories  2. Medical histories  3. Dietary practices  4. Environmental exposures  iv. Ex. if someone lives to 100 and smoked a pack a  day since he was 10 that doesn't mean smoking  makes you live longer  3. Scientific method is cyclical/dynamic (never static)  4. Confusion and conflict  a. Differences  i. In the way that various studies are designed  ii. In scientists  iii. In how studies are conducted  iv. In data analysis  b. Many influential factors  c. Sensational reporting  i. Ex. studies on products to cut fat and build muscle  that are “proven effective” are often studied on 65+  age sedentary men  5. Research bias  6. Personal attitudes and biases (POV)  a. Collection of data  b. Analysis of data  c. Evaluation of results  d. Reporting results  i. Funding sources  ii. Conflict of interest  iii. 18  7. Cause and Effect  a. Is a practice responsible for an outcome?  b. Is there a relationship between an outcome and a  treatment?  c. Coincidence or causation?  d. Correlation does not imply causation  8. Cause and Effect  a. Chronic diseases  i. Single factor  ii. Multiple factors  iii. Conflicting factors  iv. Additive factors (genetics, lifestyle, habits)    Bolded words are key vocab words 


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