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SCI 1101 CH1 Outline

by: nako.nako.nako

SCI 1101 CH1 Outline SCI 1101

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Completed CH 1 Outline - Original blank spaces that were in Prof. Abikoye's ppt are now filled in & written with LIGHT RED fonts. - Red font = materials that Prof. Abikoye emphasized and likely t...
Science, Society & Environ I
Professor Kay Abikoye
Class Notes




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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Science 1101 Lecture Completed Outline CH 1 Prof. KayAbikoye This  lecture  will  help  you  understand: § The  meaning  of  the  term  environment § The  field  and  interdisciplinary  nature  of   environmental  science § The  consequences  of  population  growth § The  importance  of  natural  resources  and  ecosystem   services § The  scientific  method  and  the  process  of  science § Some  pressures  on  the  global  environment § Concepts  of  sustainability  and  sustainable   development Our  Island,  Earth § Earth  may  seem  enormous § But  it  and  its  systems  are  finite and  limited § We  can  change  the  Earth  and  damage  its  systems § Environment   = all  the  living  and  nonliving  things   around  us § animals,  plants,  forests,  farms,  etc § continents,  oceans,  clouds,  ice  caps § structures,  urban  centers,  living  spaces § social  relationships  and  institutions § Ex)  Loblolly  pine  (short  leaf)  (know  how  it  looks  like  &   Our  environment  surrounds  us § Humans  depend  on  a  healthy,  functioning  planet § The  fundamental  insight  of  environmental  science: § We  are  part  of  the  natural  world,  but  we  can  also   change  it § Out  interactions  with  its  other  parts  matter  a  great   deal Our  environment  surrounds  us § We  depend  completely  on  the  environment  for   survival   § Increased  health,  longer  lives,  wealth,  mobility,  leisure § But  natural  systems  have  been  degraded  by  pollution,   soil  erosion,  species  extinction,  etc. § Environmental  changes  threaten  long-­term  health  and   survival Environmental  science  explores  our   interactions  with  the  world § Environmental  science = the  study  of: § How  the  natural  world  works § How  the  environment  affects  humans  and  vice  versa § We  need  to  understand  our  interactions  with  the   environment  to  creatively  solve  environmental   problems § Global  conditions  are  rapidly  changing § We  are  also  rapidly  gaining  knowledge § The  opportunity  to  solve  problems  is  still  available We  rely  on  natural  resources § Natural  resources = substances  and  energy   sources  needed  for  survival § Renewable  natural  resources = that  can  be   replenished § Perpetually  renewed:  sunlight,  wind,  wave  energy § Renew  themselves  over  short  periods:  timber,  water,   soil § These  can  be  destroyed § Nonrenewable  natural  resources = that  are   unavailable  after  depletion § Oil,  coal,  minerals ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. We  rely  on  ecosystem  services § Natural  resources  are  “goods” produced  by  nature § Earth’s  natural  resources  provide  “services”  to  us § Ecosystem  services = services  that  arise  from  the   normal  functioning  of  natural  services § Purify  air  and  water,  cycle  nutrients,  regulate  climate § Pollinate  plants,  receive  and  recycle  wastes § We  degrade  ecosystem  services  by  depleting   resources,  destroying  habitat,  generating  pollution § Increased  human  affluence  has  intensified   degradation Population  growth  amplifies  our  impact § There  are  over  7  billion  humans § Agricultural  revolution § Crops,  livestock § Stable  food  supplies § Industrial  revolution § Urbanized  society  powered  by  fossil  fuels (oil,  gas,   coal) § Sanitation  and  medicines § Pesticides  and  fertilizers ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Resource  consumption  exerts  social  and   environmental  pressures § Affluence  increases  consumption § Ecological  footprint = the  environmental  impact  of  a   person  or  pop. § The  area  of  biologically  productive  land  + water  required  to   supply  raw  resources  and  dispose/recycle  waste § People  in  rich  nations  have  much  larger  ecological   footprint § Overshoot = humans  have  surpassed  the  Earth’s   capacity  to  support  us We  are  using  renewable  resources  50%  faster  than  they   are  being  replenished If  everyone  consumed  the  amount  of  resources   the  U.S.  does,  we  would  need  four  Earths! ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Environmental  science  can  help  us  avoid  past   mistakes § How  will  resource  consumption  and  population   growth  impact  today’s  global  society?   § Civilizations  have  fallen  after  degrading  the   environment § Easter  Island,  Greek  and  Roman  empires § Once  lush  regions  (e.g.,  Iraq)  are  now  barren  deserts § Civilizations  succeed  or  fail  according  to  how  they   interact  with  the  environment § Along  with  how  they  respond  to  problems § Environmental  science  can  help  build  a  better  world The  Nature  of  Environmental  Science Environment  ç impacts  è Humans § Its  applied  goal:  solving  environmental  problems § Solutions  are  applications of  science § An  interdisciplinary  field § Natural  sciences = disciplines  that  examine  the   natural  world § Environmental  science programs § Social  sciences = disciplines  that  examine  values   and  human  behavior § Environmental  studies programs ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. People  vary  in  how  they  perceive   environmental  problems § Whether  an  environmental  condition  is  seen  as  a   problem  depends  on  the  individual  and  situation § For  example,  the  pesticide  DDT § In  malaria-­infested  Africa  it  is  welcome  because  it  kills   malaria-­carrying  mosquitoes § In  America  it  is  not  welcome,  due  to  health  risks People also differ in their awareness of problems, depending on who they are, where they live, what they do ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Environmental  science  is  not  the  same  as   environmentalism § Environmental  science  (study) § Pursues  knowledge  about  the  environment  and  our   interactions  with  it § Scientists  try  to  remain  objective  and  free  from  bias § Environmentalism  (movement) § A  social  movement § Tries  to  protect  the  natural  world  from  human-­caused   changes § Ex)  recycling ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. The  Nature  of  Science § Science = a  systematic  process  for  learning  about   the  world  and  testing  our  understanding  of  it § The  accumulated  body  of  knowledge  arising  from  the   dynamic  process  of  observation,  testing,  and   discovery § Civilization  depends  on  science  and  technology § Science  tries  to  understand  the  world  and  steer  a  safe   course § Science  is  essential  to  sort  fact  from  fiction  and   develop  solutions  to  the  problems  we  face § It  must  be  accessible  understandable  to  the  public ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Scientists  test  ideas  by  critically  examining   evidence § Science  is  an  incremental  approach  to  the  truth § Scientists  do  not  simply  accept  conventional  wisdom § They  judge  ideas  by  the  strength  of  their  evidence § Observational  (descriptive)  science = info  is  gathered   about  organism,  systems,  processes,  etc. § Cannot  be  manipulated  by  experiments § Phenomena  are  observed  and  measured § Used  in  astronomy,  paleontology,  taxonomy,  genomics § Hypothesis-­driven  science = targeted  research § Experiments  test  hypotheses  using  the  scientific  method The  scientific  method  is  a  traditional  approach   to  research § It  tests  ideas § Scientists  in  different  fields  approach  problems   differently   § A  scientist  makes  an  observation  and  asks   questions about  some  phenomenon Rememb er order for test Develop  a  hypothesis and  Make  predictions § Hypothesis = a  statement  that  tries  to  explain  the   question § The  hypothesis  generates  predictions = specific   statements  that  can  be  directly  tested § The  test  results either  support  or  reject  the   hypothesis § Ex)  If-­then  hypothesis ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Test  the  predictions § Variable a  condition  that  can  change § Independent  variable = a  variable  that  can  be   manipulated § Ex)  velocity  (Lab  1),  water  (watering  tree) § Dependent  variable = a  variable  that  depends  on   the  independent  variable § ex)  length  of  tree  (watering  tree) Test  the  predictions § Controlled  experiment = one  in  which  the  effects  of   all  variables  are  controlled § Except  the  independent  variable  whose  effect  is  being   tested § Control = an  unmanipulated point  of  comparison § Quantitative  data = information  that  uses  numbers § Qualitative  data =information  that  does  not  use   numbers We  test  hypotheses  in  different  ways § Manipulative  experiments yield  the  strongest   evidence   § Researchers  control  independent  variables § Reveal  causal  relationships § Many  things  cannot  be  manipulated § Natural  experiments show  real-­world  complexity § Use  existing  conditions  to  test  predictions—little  control   over  variables § Results  are  not  neat  and  clean § Answers  are  not  black  and  white The  scientific  process  continues  beyond  the   scientific  method § The  scientific  process  guards  against  faulty   research.  Checks  include: § Peer  review § Publication  in  scientific  journals § Competition  for  funding ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Science  goes  through  “paradigm  shifts” § Theory  = a  well-­tested  and  widely  accepted   explanation § Consolidates  widely  supported,  related  hypotheses § Paradigm  shift = a  dramatic  upheaval  in  thought   § It  changes  the  dominant  viewpoint § Ex)  medications § Wicked  problems= problems  that  are  complex,   with  no  simple  solution § For  example,  environmental  problems Sustainability  and  Our  Future § Sustainability = the  idea  that  we  must  live  within   our  planet’s  means  so  the  Earth  and  its  resources   can  sustain  us  and  all  life  for  the  future § Sustainability  involves   § Conserving  resources § Developing  long-­term  solutions § Keeping  fully  functioning  ecosystems Sustainability  and  Our  Future § Natural  capital = Earth’s  total  wealth  of  resources § We  are  withdrawing  it  faster  than  it’s  being   replenished § We  must  live  off  Earth’s  natural  interest  (replenishable resources),  not  its  natural  capital Population  and  consumption  drive  impact § Population  growth  amplifies  all  human  impacts § The  growth  rate  has  slowed,  but  we  still  add  more   than  200,000  people  to  the  planet  each  day § Resource  consumption  has  risen  faster  than   population § Life  has  become  more  pleasant § Rising  consumption  also  amplifies  our  demands  on   the  environment   § The  20  wealthiest  nations  have  55  times  the  income   of  the  20  poorest  nations § This  is  three  times  the  gap  that  existed  40  years  ago Population  and  consumption  drive  impact § Not  everyone  benefits  equally  from  rising  affluence § The  ecological  footprints  of  countries  vary  greatly;;   the  United  States’  footprint  is  much  greater  than  the   world’s  average § In  the  United  States,  the  richest  1%  have  25%  of  all   income ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Population  and  consumption  drive  impact § Erosion  and  other  impacts  from  agriculture   § Deforestation § Toxic  substances § Fresh  water  depletion § Fisheries  decline § air  and  water  pollution Remember § Waste  generation most of these § Mineral  extraction  and  mining  impacts § Global  climate  change § Loss  of  Earth’s  biodiversity § Once  a  species  is  extinct,  it  is  gone  forever Agriculture,  urban  sprawl,  and  other  land  uses  have   substantially  affected  most  of  the  landscape  of  all  nations ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Population  and  consumption  drive  impact § The  Millennium  Ecosystem  Assessment  is  to  date   the  most  comprehensive  scientific  assessment  of   the  condition  of  the  world’s  ecological  systems § In  2005,  2000  of  the  world’s  leading  scientists  from   100  nations  reported: § Humans  have  drastically  altered  ecosystems   § These  changes  have  contributed  to  human  well-­being   and  economic  development,  but  at  a  cost § Environmental  degradation  could  get  much  worse § Degradation  can  be  reversed,  but  it  requires  work Our  energy  choices  will  influence  our  future   enormously § The  lives  we  live  today  are  due  to  fossil  fuels § Machines § Chemicals   § Transportation § Consumer  products § Fossil  fuels  are  a  one-­time  bonanza § Supplies  will  certainly  decline We  have  used  up  half  of  the  world’s  oil  supplies;;  how  will   we  handle  this  imminent  fossil  fuel  shortage? Sustainable  solutions  abound § Renewable  energy  and  efficiency § Organic  agriculture § Legislation  and  technology  to  reduce  pollution § Protecting  species  and  their  habitat § Recycling,  decreasing  waste § Decreasing  greenhouse  gas  emissions We  must  develop  solutions  that  protect   both  our  quality  of  life  and  the  environment ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Students  are  promoting  solutions  on  campus § Campus  sustainability seeks  to  reduce  the   campus  ecological  footprint § Student  organizations  are  often  key  in  initiating   recycling  programs,  finding  ways  to  reduce  energy   use,  and  advocating  for  new  courses  or  majors Students  are  promoting  solutions  on  campus § College  and  university  campuses  are  major  users  of   resources § Most  have  extensive  infrastructure  including   classrooms,  offices,  research  labs,  residential   housing,  dining  establishments,  sports  arenas,  vehicle   fleets,  and  road  networks § Taken  together,  these  institutions  generate  perhaps   2%  of  U.S.  carbon  emissions Campus  sustainability  efforts  are  diverse § Students  are  advancing  sustainability  efforts  on  their   campuses  by  promoting  efficient  transportation  options,   running  recycling  programs,  planting  trees  and  restoring   native  plants,  and  growing  organic  gardens. § Students  who  take  such  initiatives  accomplish  several   things  at  once: § Make  a  difference  by  reducing  the  ecological  footprint  of  a   campus § Serve  as  models  to  their  peers  and  raise  awareness  of  the   issues § Learn  and  grow  to  be  better  prepared  for  life  in  the   broader  world


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