Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes CCJ 4450
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Sharpnack on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Leadership and Management in Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Florida Gulf Coast University.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Chapter 1 Police Organization: Evolving Strategies Organization: an arrangement of people and resources that are grouped by assignment of tasks and areas of responsibility to achieve a desired purpose. Police Department Organizational Elements: 1. Purpose 2. Structure 3. Functions 4. People Classical Organization Theory: the development of the factory system with its accompanying array of organizational problems that evolved as the major influence on the thinking and beliefs of individuals who contributed. Bureaucracy: self-contained and internally controlled entity, accomplishing its mission without being affected by environmental forces. Max Weber: German sociologist, first systematic analyses of rational-legal organization model (ideal bureaucracy). Bureaucratic Organization Characteristics: 1. Assigns responsibility for routine activities. 2. Distributes authority to who need it in order to accomplish assigned tasks. 3. Vests authority in positions rather than individuals and principle of office hierarchy provides level of authority. 4. Requires thorough documentation of all activity; records maintained by staff. 5. Considers training to be the best means of ensuring effective performance. 6. Requires each manager to devote full-time efforts to managing. 7. Considers it essential, for the sake of stability, to reduce management to a set of rules. Function Criteria: 1. Organized hierarchically. 2. Specific sphere of competence (required). 3. Open selection of staff (emphasized). 4. Selections based on merit. 5. Salary based on hierarchical merit. 6. Office is primary occupation of the incumbent. Ideal Police Organizational Model Principles: 1. Primary function is crime control. 2. Independent of politics. 3. Effectiveness and efficiency result from a highly centralized command structure and standardized operating procedures. 4. Hierarchical and subdivided according to a division of labor and task specialization. 5. Officers are selected on the basis of established standards. 6. They should be well trained and disciplined. 7. Crime can be deterred by preventive, random motorized patrol. 8. Use modern technology. 9. Enforce laws impartially. 10.Crimes are solved by scientific investigative measures. Frederick W. Taylor: founder of scientific management, American efficiency engineer. Scientific Procedures to Analyze Work: 1. Shift all organizational responsibility for the organization to the manager. -Related to planning and design of work. 2. Use scientific methods to determine most efficient way of accomplishing tasks. 3. Select best person to perform jobs. 4. Train selected persons to do work. 5. Monitor worker performance to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and appropriate results are achieved. Scientific Management: first attempt to use scientific methods to understand task structure and accomplishment by worker. Henri Fayol: first to develop a comprehensive theory of administration, French mining engineer, and founding father of administrative school. Five Basic Functions of Each Manager: 1. Planning: a good plan of action should be flexible, continuous, relevant, and accurate. 2. Organizing: lines of authority and responsibility about communication flow and use of resources. 3. Commanding: should know personnel, eliminate incompetence, set a good example, conduct periodic audits, ensure unity of direction and focus of efforts, and are not engrossed in details. 4. Coordinating: determining the timing and sequencing of activities so they mesh properly; allocation of the appropriate resources, time, means, and priority to accomplish tasks. 5. Controlling: checking on what is occurring, talking corrective action and adapting to changing developments that affect the plan of accomplishment. Principle: a general truth about the management of organizations. -Not an infallible scientific law, but if applied would improve organizational performance. Fayol’s Principles: 1. Division of work: allowing for specialization. 2. Authority: right to give orders; coupled with employee’s responsibility. 3. Discipline: obedience, application, energy, and respect within organization. 4. Unity of Command: subordinates should receive orders from one superior. 5. Unity of Direction: each objective should only have one boss and one plan. 6. Subordination: of individual interest to general interest. 7. Rewards: bonuses, profit sharing, piece rates, ensure equitable payment. 8. Centralization: one point in the organization should have control over all parts; in large organization some decisions made in lower level. 9. Chain of Command: should be an unbroken chain of managers (scalar chain); authority and communication should follow chain. 10.Orderliness: well-chosen place for everything and it is kept in place. 11.Equity: achieved through combination of kindliness and justice. 12.Stability: provided by management for personnel tenure; mediocre managers who stay are preferable over those who great yet come and go. 13.Forethought: carefully consider plans before executing them. 14.Esprit de Corps: group should work as a team, with every member working to accomplish goals. Functional Management: structuring of organizations into units based upon the type of work they perform. Leonhard F. Fuld: submitted first doctoral dissertation (1906) in administrative theory and conducted “Police Administration” critical study. Problems Confronting Police Found: 1. Elimination of politics from police administration. 2. Specialization of duties. 3. Clearly defined duties. 4. Constant supervision of duties. 5. Strong executive leadership. 6. Constant auditing by inspectors. 7. Maintenance of discipline. 8. Comprehensive training of patrolmen. 9. Careful selection of personnel. 10.Elimination of non-police duties. Command and Control: Style of administration emphasizes the authority of the chief executive and the management team as the ultimate power in police organization. Raymond B. Fosdick: first to contrast European and American police systems. In 1915, completed first comprehensive study of policing in the United States. For a Sound Administrative Organization to Develop: 1. Relationships between supervision and work must be well balanced. 2. Different parts of the mechanism must be adjusted to each other. 3. Whole machine must be adapted to tasks. POSDCORB: by Luther Gulick and L. Urwick (1937). P: planning O: organization S: staffing D: directing CO: coordinating R: reporting B: budgeting August Vollmer: father of modern policing, supported application of managerial, sociological, social work, and psychological concepts. Police Administration: focused on the structural, functional, and managerial processes involved in coordinating the department’s activities in accomplishing its public safety mission. Human Relations: in management, the term refers to personnel or human resource aspect of the manger’s job. Hawthorne Effect: how psychological and social conditions of work proved to be meaningful. Based on an explicit code of behavior: 1. The amount of work accomplished should be restricted. 2. You should not turn out too little work. 3. You should never tell a supervisor anything that would harm a fellow employee. 4. You should never act officious even when functioning as supervisor. This developed “human relations” school. Meant to address organizational goals and employee needs as separate and mutually exclusive. Human Resource Management: movement that developed out of the human relations school between 1960’s-80’s. Once set need not be treated at the expense of the other. Holds that organizational goals and human needs are mutual and compatible. Involves designing and implementing systems to improve many factors. Systems Theory: during the 1960’s, a mode of analysis initially applied in the natural and physical sciences, evolved as a way of analyzing the various environmental factors that influenced organizations. System: is composed of regularly interacting interdependent groups or activities that form a whole. An ongoing process that transforms certain specific inputs into outputs. Close-System Organization: perceived as self-regulating, controlled structures, complete unto themselves, not affected by external forces. Open-System Organization: a model reflects’ the dynamic interrelationship of the organization with its external environment. Characterized by the influence of environmental inputs (external driving forces) that are internally processed (internal capability) and changed into organization products or services (i.e. safe communities and reduced crime) that have value for the organization. System Features: 1. Basic organizational mission and the means it uses to accomplish it. 2. Specific environmental driving forces that affect the organization. 3. Organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses. 4. Means used by all mission-related components of the organization to set and pursue goals and measure accomplishments. 5. Nature of the interrelationships and joint functioning of the organization’s subunits. Open-System Characteristics: 1. Tasks are performed in a constantly changing environment. 2. Members of the organization have specialized knowledge. 3. Internal conflict is resolved within the organization. 4. Task accomplishment, rather than process fulfillment, is the most important thing. 5. Every member of the organization is expected to contribute to the organization. 6. Internal interaction stresses problem solving. 7. Excellence of performance is emphasized. Systems management: challenges police managers to become more aware of the interdependence of all systems in their environment. Intelligence-led Policing: requires police departments take more analytical view of the driving forces in their environment. Contingency Theory: in a stable environment, organizations are more effective if they have detailed procedures and centralized decision making, while in an unstable environment decentralized organizations (which allow for participation and flexible decision making and place less emphasis on rules and regulations) do better. Elements include: 1. Environmental driving forces. 2. The individual. 3. The organization. 4. The group/team within the organization. Strategy: the pattern or plan that integrates an organization’s mission, policies, tactics, and people into a cohesive whole. Tactics: action sequences. Political Era: characterized by thethlose ties between police and politics, began in 1840’s and ended during early 20 century. Reform Era: arose from a desire to eliminate politics from policing. Community Policing Era: emphasized collaboration between police and community members in the prevention as well as the control of crime and disorder. O.W. Wilson: protégé of August Vollmer, became primary administrative architect of the movement to professionalize policing. Developed and recommended police executives nine principles of organizational management: 1. Tasks similar to purpose, method, or clientele should be grouped together in one or more units under the control of a single person. 2. Duties should be defined precisely and made known to all members of the organization so that responsibility can be placed exactly. 3. Channels of communication should be established so that information can flow up and down and authority can be delegated. 4. The principle of unity of command must be applied. 5. Executive spans of control should be limited. 6. Each task should be assigned to a member. 7. Line personnel must be supervise around the clock. 8. Each assignment of responsibility carries with it a commensurate authority. 9. Persons to whom authority is delegated are held accountable for its use. Professional Model of Law Enforcement: dominated policing, and citizens became passive recipients of crime-control services. Police as “thing blue line” of defense. Problem-Oriented Policing (POP): approach that police should analyze a wide range of information for the purpose of identifying the problems that affect communities, construct, and implement responses uniquely suited to each particular problem. Strategic Policing: seeks to improve the ability of the police to control crime through the planned alignment of the department’s internal capabilities with its external demands. Compstat: computer statistics; combined a comprehensive, continuous analysis of current crime with strategy development and assessment. Core set of crime- reduction principles developed by NYPD: 1. Accurate and timely intelligence. 2. Rapid focused deployment of personnel and resources. 3. Effective tactics. 4. Relentless follow-up and assessment. New Strategic Police Management Process: 1. Chief executive creates a strategic vision that motivates with a sense of purposeful action toward accomplishment of the basic mission and functions of the department. 2. Senior management sets performance goals and objectives; translates the strategic vision into specific performance outcomes to achieve. 3. Develops a process of information gathering, analysis, and dissemination, that provides operational managers with timely information to make informed decisions. 4. Senior management fixes managerial accountability and sets empowerment of operational mangers for the development of plans and accomplishment of results. 5. Operational managers craft tactical plans to achieve desired outcomes. 6. Operational managers implement and execute these tactics. 7. Managers at all levels evaluate performance, initiating corrective adjustments in vision, long-term direction, objectives, strategy, or implementation in light of actual experiences, changing conditions, new ideas, and new opportunities.
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