History 2010 Week 2 Chapter 2 Notes Paul Fox
History 2010 Week 2 Chapter 2 Notes Paul Fox HIST 2010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Snyder on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2010 at Auburn University Montgomery taught by Dr. Paul Fox in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1865 in History at Auburn University Montgomery.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
History 2010: Early Exploration Notes 8/23/2016 I. Early Exploration A. Marco Polo (1254-1324) 1. 1271 Asian Travel - Having access to Asian resources drives Europeans. - Raise the money for the expedition and be prepared for potential losses. B. Renaissance – 14 TH and 15 centuries 1. State Building - More efficient at raising money and acquiring new revenue - The stronger the states, the more risks they can take and ventures they can find. 2. New Money - The wealthy can show off their wealth by their land, their clothes, their parties, and how fat they were. - We have a new way of displaying wealth: cash. Money. o Starts in northern Italy. Without cash, you were rich on paper but in reality you were stuck. Reforms banking, creates sophisticated, modern banking Encourages investments Allows loan take out o Show off new money in investments and trade. More money? More money for government to tax. Gives monarchs the ability to take risks on their own Exploration II. Why Did Europeans Explore the New World A. Exotic Commodities - Asian materials are coveted by Europeans B. Geography 1. Shift in trade routes - Ottoman takeover left others with two options: live without or find another way. - There finally was the money in the renaissance that could allow for people to look for another way. - People began to think about water. C. New naval technology 1. Compass - Makes it easy to see where you are, where you’ve come from, and how you are going to get back to where you started. - Cross worked only if you could find the sun D. Religion - Believe they can go to these territories and countries to maybe impose their religion on the countries and try to get the people to conform - Before reformation: Catholicism and Protestant o Martin Luther blew this wide open - Encourages people to go somewhere else to spread their message if it’s not working at home. E. Social 1. Growth of Population - Reaching “critical mass” levels. Pre plague levels - “Once you reach 75 million people, this may happen again.” – educated European individuals. - Take down likelihood of disease by shoving bunch of people off to the New World. F. Political - If you have it, I have to have it. - Lots of trying to one up others. - New political ideologies coming forward. III. Iberian Age A. Portugese - Have money after trade & stuff in North Africa - Use this money entirely on exploration 1. Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) a. Innovations - Unconventional things. - Invest in new ships called caravels. o These boats are actually lighter than other boats. 2. Vasco de Gama (d. 1524) - Successful because he takes lots of risks. - Shrewd. a. South Africa - To get favorable trade conditions, he and his crew claims he is a Muslim. o Fires cannons in city when leaders refuse trade. b. India - Kidnaps a bunch of soldiers to show that Portugal will do whatever it wants. - Lays down a portugese presence wherever he goes. Got a lotIberian Age Continued A. Spain i. Enterprise of the Indies 1. Ferdinand and Isabella - Those who flee leave Ferdinand and Isabella a lot of property and money. 2. Christopher Columbus a. San Salvador (1492) 3. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) a. Alexander VI - Portugal got the part on the east, and Spain got the west (Spanish got a lot of territory. - Spanish didn’t care for North America. Focused on Central & South America, cash crops, and money. 4. Encomienda - Take what they were doing in Medieval times and use it in the new world. - Take land and give pieces to his conquistadors, resources, natives, etc. - Doesn’t work in the Carribean. Disease does such a number that there aren’t enough peasants and serfs for work. - Spanish aren’t going to give up, so in comes the TransAtlantic Slave Trade 5. Columbian Exchange - By the end of the sixteenth century, there was a massive slave trade in Africa for the Spanish. - The English, French, and Dutch come late. Profitable things are locked down. - The Spanish initially have the market cornered. IV. Major Explorers A. John Cabot (England) - First European since the Vikings to step foot on American mainland (500-600 years) 1. Canada B. Ponce de Leon (Spain) 1. Florida - Encounters hostility with the natives B. Ferdinand Magellan (Spain) - First crew to circumnavigate the world 1. Circumnavigation - Magellan makes Portugese government extremely mad o Navy chases him but manages to always stay one step ahead o Lands south of portugese part of brazil o Captains mutinied against him during a bad winter When he gets word, he attacks the captains. Executed to send a message and let the little guys go. North into pacific and landed in the Philippine Islands o Receives warm welcome from Natives He is useful The best European explorers can be saviors to natives. Help them in the short run but establish yourself in the long run. Magellan dies in the interfilipino battle and crew heads back to spain completing their circumnavigation of the world. C. Hernando Desoto (Spain) 1. Southern Mississippi River Valley 2. St. Augustine (1563) D. Jacques Cartier (France) 1. St. Lawrence River Valley - Established exploration pattern - Rather than conquer/ transplant huge populations, do work on the cheap. Help the natives, send popes, etc. o Use the natives to help make you wealthy. Cut deals with them Gives French foothole is fur business E. Walter Raleigh (England) 1. Roanoke (1587) - Spanish are still making money hand over fist - No gold but good land for cash crops. Big market for Tobacco though. V. Conquistadors - Cooperation is used at first between Spanish and natives A. Hernando Cortez - Engages in a total war to wipe out the Aztecs 1. Aztecs - Spanish have advantages o Guns o Horses o Diseases - Many more Aztecs than Spanish - Takes a look at Aztec civilization, learns the politics, and takes advantage of it. - Crucial difference: Cortez isn’t fighting blind. a. Montezuma II B. Francisco Pizarro 1. Incas - Like cortez, learns the way of land, the people, and the politics, and the language. C. Why the Spanish Win - They take their time to actually learn about the people they are fighting. - Eliminate the advantage the Aztecs and incas had with their large numbers VI. Life in England - Genuinely unimpressed with findings (Spanish got all the good.) A. Reformation a. Church of England - Opens up a new door for religious expression - Until Henry 8 , all English people are Catholic or nothing - They want everyone in the same church (Church of England) o Beliefs of CofE change over time o 2 things that CofE is aligned to. Pope is not in charge of the church. King or Queen is in charge of the church. Truths of Christianity taught fluctuates Loyalty is to the monarch. *Cue HSM “We’re All in This Together” * B. Elizabeth - Europe has a whole is fighting a war between Catholics and Protestants. I. Privateering (Pirating) - Authorize English ships to steal from Spanish ships and come back to England II. Puritans - Strict rules - Enforce their opinions on others - Certain they’ve figured out God’s will o Think everyone else is wrong - Want to see C of E more reformed…more Protestant - Debate will intensify as Elizabeth gets older. As she gets older, it’s less effective. o “She’ll be dead soon. It will all work out.” C. James 1 I. Calvinism and Arminianism - They assume got chose them - Want james to make C of E more Calvinist - If someone believes they are saved, they will have a lot of confidence o King not on the good list? Feel that they have a right to tell the king what is up - James believes kings are only answerable to god. o No obligation to people - Arminianism = free will (opposite of predestination) o Choose to obey god or decline - King would like this better because his people would have to behave. - Puritans begin to become desparate because they believe they are absolutely right o Start becoming bold o Using leverage to get king to listen (King: Need money Puritans: Do things with church) o 1640s spill into civil war where James’ son gets killed Military dictatorship in England, Scotland, and Ireland - How one sees religion determines how they see the state II. Church and State conflict
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