First week of Lab Notes
First week of Lab Notes Biol 221L
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 221L at Towson University taught by Strickland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I lab in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
9/2 Anatomy Lab 1: Anatomical terms, Body cavities, and Membranes; Tissues Anatomical position This semester o Skeletal Facilitates movement Calcium Blood formation Muscular Nervous o Responses to stimuli Next semester o Integumentary system (Not needed this semester) Outside (skin, hair, etc.) o Endocrine Hormones o Cardiovascular Blood, etc. o Lymphatic Immune system o Respiratory Oxygen to the body o Digestive Digest food o Urinary Remove waste o Reproductive Reproduce Slides 5-9 o Proximal Toward an attached base (Shoulder vs Fingers) o Distal Away from an attached base (Fingers to torso) o Medial Toward the midline o Lateral Away from the midline o Posterior/Dorsal Back surface/ Back o Anterior/ Ventral Front surface/Front o Caudal Toward the tail/ Coccyx o Cranial/ Cephalic Toward the head o Superior Above o Superficial Near or at the body surface o Deep Toward the interior of the body o Frontal/Coronal plane Separation of the anterior and posterior portions of the body o Sagittal plane Parallel to long axis/ Separates left and right portions o Midsagittal plane Passes through the midline o Transverse plane Perpendicular long axis separates superior and inferior portions of the body o Slides 8 and 9 for other sections Body Cavities (Slides 10- 13) o Dorsal Cavities Cranial Vertebral o Vertical cavities Thoracic Cavity Superior mediastinum Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Tissues (Slides 14- 41) o Epithelial (15-24) Covers exposed surfaces/ passage ways Classification Squamous- Flat Cuboidal- Cubic Columnar- Elongated Layers Simple- Single layer Stratified- Multiple layers Pseudostratified- Appears to be layered but all cells contact basement membrane Cellularity Bound closely with cell junctions, much tighter packed than other tissue types Polarity Exposed (apical surface) Attached (Basolateral surface) o The base is attached to a thin non-cellular basement membrane (Basal lamina) They act have different polarities meaning they have functional differences Avascularity They lack blood vessels Receive their nutrients by diffusion or absorption from either the attached or exposed surface Regeneration They are continuously replaced through stem cell divisions, regenerates much faster than other cells Functions Provide physical protection o Protect exposed and internal surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, and destruction Control Permeability o Everything entering or exiting materials must cross the epithelium which is selectively permeable o Hormones and physical stress can affect the properties of the epithelia Provide sensation o Extremely sensitive to stimulation because of a large sensory nerve supply o Continually provide information about the external and internal environments o Neuroepithelium: An epithelium that is specialized to perform a sensory function Produce specialized secretions o Glandular Epithelium: Epithelial cells that produce secretions o Discharged onto the surface or into intestinal fluid Specialization of Cells o Movement of fluids over the surface, providing protection and lubrication o Movement of fluids through the epithelium and control permeability o Ciliated Epithelium: Cells with cilia that are used to move substances over the epithelium o Connective (25- 35) Fills internal spaces/ provides structural support Types Areolar: Loose connective tissue o F.I. Skin, mucous membranes, around blood vessels, nerves, and organs Adipose: Fatty tissue (adipocytes) stores energy, cushions, and insulates Reticular: Form soft skeleton o F.I. area around kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone arrow Cartilage: Tough, flexible, and cushions between bones and joints Bone: Rigid; provides support and protection Blood: Delivery and transportation o Nutrients, oxygen, etc. o Muscle (36- 39) Specialized for contraction Types Skeletal o Anchored to bones via tendons o Moves bones o Used for movement and posture o Voluntarily controlled Cardiac o Found in the heart o Similar too above o Non-Voluntary control Smooth o Found in walls of organs o Non- Voluntary control o Neural (40- 41) Carries information from one part of the body to another via electrical impulses Composed of neurons and glial cells Response to sensory input and controls other organ systems accordingly Found in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system Terms to Know (42-47) o Cephalic: Head Cranial: Skull Facial: Face o Oral: Mouth o Mental: chin o Axillary: Armpit o Brachial: Arm o Antecubital: Front of Elbow o Frontal: Forhead o Nasal: Nose o Ocular/ Orbital: Eye o Otic: Ear o Buccal: Cheek o Thoracic: Thorax/Chest o Cervical: Neck o Mammary: Breast o Abdominal/Trunk (includes pelvic): Abdomen/ Pelvis o Umbilical: Navel o Antebrachial Forearm o Carpal: Wrist o Palmar: palm o Pollex: Thumb o Digits/ Phalanges: Fingers/ toes o Patellar: Kneecap o Crural: Leg o Tarsal: Ankle o Hallux: Big toe o Pedal: Foot o Inguinal: Groin o Pubic: Pubis region o Femoral: thigh o Acromial: Shoulder o Dorsal: Back o Olecranal: Back of Elbow o Upper limb: Beginning of arm to fingers o Gluteal: Buttock o Popliteal: back of knee o Sural: Calf o Calcaneal: Heal of foot o Plantar: Sole of foot o Lower Limb: Beginning of leg to feet Bones of the skull (47 for diagram) Bold= ones for today 9/2 o Back of skull bones/ Sutures Parietal Sphenoid Occipital Temporal Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Zygomatic process External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Mandibular condyle o Front of skull Coronal suture Frontal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Temporal process Mandible Mental foramen Types of Bones (46) o Flat bones Ex. Parietal o Long bones Humerus o Sesamoid bone Patella o Sutural bones Joints of cranial bones o Irregular bones Vertebra o Short bones Carpal bones
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