Chapter 1: Chemists and Chemistry
Chapter 1: Chemists and Chemistry CHEM 1055
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Rizzolo on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1055 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Gordon T. Yee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Honors General Chemistry for Majors in Chemistry at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Monday, August 22, 2016 Chemistry: Chapter 1 Notes A chemist typically works with a variety of other people including other chemists, chemical engineers, lawyers, etc. - Trained chemists could also be patent lawyers, salespeople, etc. 1.2 A Real World Chemistry problem Many books from the last century have pages that are falling apart - A chemist will work with many different types of people to come up with a create the tests for the different processes [Type here] 1.3 The Scientific Method Science is a set of facts as well as a plan of action for processing and understanding information Scientific Method—The process of studying natural phenomena, involving observations, forming laws and theories, and testing of theories by experimentation 1. Making observations- quantitative or qualitative 2. Formulating hypothesis- possible explanation 3. Making predictions- hypothesis is used to make a prediction that can be tested 4. Performing experiments- always produce new observations which starts the scientific method cycle over again Natural Law—A statement that expresses generally observed behavior - Explains what happens not why it happens Theory—A set of assumptions put forth to explain some aspect of the observed behavior of matter - A possible explanation of why - Change as more information becomes available— constantly ask questions and make changes 2 [Type here] While this is the ideal method, human mistakes are made and the distinct steps blend together and human judgement becomes clouded - Scientific method is only as effective as the humans using them. 1.4 Industrial Chemistry The chemical industry can be subdivided in terms of three basic types of activities 1. The isolation of naturally occurring substances for use as raw materials 2. The processing of raw materials by chemical reactions to manufacture commercial products 3. The use of chemicals to provide services Differences between industrial and laboratory chemistry - Economy and safety are critical in industrial processes - Metal containers and gauges are used and corrosion a constant problem - By-products of a reaction are recycled or sold in industry - High temperature, pressure, and are continuous flow in industry Development of an industrial chemical process 1. A need for a product is identified 2. Relevant chemistry studied in a small scale in laboratory 3. The data are evaluated by many different people to determine which possibility is most feasible 4. A pilot-plant test of the process is carried out (size is between that of lab and manufacturing plant)Josep 3
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