Tuesday 08/30/16 Lecture Notes
Tuesday 08/30/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
Reviews for Tuesday 08/30/16 Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/30/16
PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20116 Lecture Notes Class Info: Quiz 2 – Chapter 6 Memory • Available Wednesday 7am – 10:30pm • No Password Class Notes: Theory • A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events o For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression • Hypothesis o A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory § Frustration can lead to depression and aggression o People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed • Research Observations o Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression • Research Process a) Theories lead to b) Hypotheses lead to c) Research and observations • Scientific Method: A toolbox of skills o Allows us to test specific hypotheses derived from broader theories of how things work § Theories are never “proven,” but hypotheses can be disconfirmed o Naturalistic Observation – watching behavior in real-world setting o Example – someone honks and you go slower in response § High degree of external validity – extent to which we can generalize our findings to the real world § Low degree of internal validity – extend to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences § Use your own experiences to draw hew hypotheses = not conclusions o Case study designs § Depth is traded for breadth § We look at one group to study why they did what they did in a particular circumstance § Common with rare types of brain damage § Helpful in providing existence proofs, but can be misleading and anecdotal o Correlational designs PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20116 Lecture Notes § Correlation can vary from -1 to +1 • Zero means there is no correlation § 0 means no relationship § Depicted in a scatterplot – each dot represents a single person’s data § Illusory Correlation – perception of a statistical association where none exist (e.g., crime and the full moon) § Correlation cannot determine causation – merely shows things are related nor correlated § ***If you come to class scan your id before entering the classroom (does not count for points – simply so the instructor can view class attendance correlation vs grades at the end of the semester) o Survey § A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people o Self-report measures and surveys § Self-Report measures – questionnaires assess a variety of characteristics (e.g., interests, traits) § Surveys – measure opinions, attitudes o Important Terms in Survey Design § Sample • A selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied § Representative Sample • A selected segment that very closely parallels, on relevant characteristics, the larger population being studied § Random Selection • Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study o Self-Report Measures § Pros • Easy to administer • Direct (self) assessment of person’s state § Cons • Accuracy is skewed for certain groups (narcissist) • Potential for dishonesty o Response sets – tendencies of research subjects to distort their responses § Positive impression managing o Examples of Newspaper Headlines that confuse correlation with causation § Low self-esteem “shrinks Brain” § Housework Cuts Breast Cancer Risk § Wearing a helmet puts cyclists at risk, suggests research o CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION PSYC 1301 Auugg300,20016 Lecture Notes o More on correlations § “The stork brought you” § Brain size predicts intelligence § Some drug treatments also show reduced coronary heart disease § Ice cream consumption predicts violent crime rates § o Order in Random Events § We look for order and meaningful patterns. § Which is more probable? § Answer: they are equally probable PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20166 Lecture Notes o Exploring Cause and Effect § Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments • Manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under control • Effects generated by manipulation factors isolate cause and effect relationships o Experimental Design: What Makes a Study an Experiment? § Random assignment – of participants to conditions • Experimental group – receives the manipulation • Control group – does not receive the manipulation § Independent Variable – experimenter manipulates § Dependent Variable – experimenter measures to see whether manipulation had an effect o Independent Variable § An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. § For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable o Dependent Variable § A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process § For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable o Touch and tipping § Does touching lead to greater restaurant tipping? § How would one test that? • You would have to watch very carefully and count the amount of times a server touched the customer and see if there is a difference in the percent tip received compared to the same server who didn’t touch their customers. (Still not the best experimental design though) • Needs the same server – what if one server is nicer than the other • Needs the same customers, or similar customers o Pitfalls of Experimental Design § Placebo effect – improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement • Subjects must be blind – unaware of whether they are in the experimental or control group • Placebos show many of the same characteristics as real drugs PSYC 1301 Auug 300,20116 Lecture Notes • Knowing about placebo effects does not always reduce their effects § Experimenter expectancy effect – phenomenon in which researchers’ hypotheses lean them to unintentionally bias a study outcome • Examples: o Clever Hans, the mathematical horse o Rosenthal’s undergrads and maze-bright, maze-dull rats § Double-blind design – neither researchers nor subjects know who is in the experimental or control group § Hawthorne effect – phenomenon in which participants’ knowledge that they’re being studied can affect … o Experimental Design: what makes a study an experiment § Confounds – any difference between the experimental and control groups, other than the independent variable… o Asking people about themselves and others § Random selection – key to generalizability; ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate § Evaluating Measures: • Reliability – consistency of measurement • Validity – extent to which a measure assesses what it claims to measure • A test must be reliable to be valid, but a reliable test can still be completely invalid • Using height to measure intelligence would be relatable, but not valid o Why not always run an experimental study? § It is not always plausible • Death penalty research § For research at the discovery stage, identifying relationships might be the first step § Not always ethical • Death and divorce o Ethical issues in research Design § Tuskegee Study (1932 to 1972) • African American men living in rural Alabama diagnosed with syphilis • U.S. Public Health Service never informed, or treated, the men • Merely studied the course of the disease: 28 men died of syphilis, 100 of related complications, 40 wives were infected, 19 children were born with it o Key provisions in the most recent APA ethical guidelines regulation research with human participants PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20116 Lecture Notes § Informed consent and voluntary participation § Students as research participants § The use of deception § Confidentiality of information § Information about the study of debriefing o True or False? § If an experiment can be reproduced 9 out of 10 times, it is statistically significant. § FALSE – the typical standard in psychology experiments is 19 out of 20 (or 95%) New Lecture • What is Memory? o Memory involves three fundamental processes § Encoding – transforming information into a form that can be entered and retained by the memory system § Storage – retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time § Retrieval – recovering stored information for conscious awareness § One driving point. Memory is an active process. • We selected what we attend to and retrieve o What is the capital of California? 1. Perhaps you never heard it before. If so, then no encoding. 2. Perhaps you once knew the capital, but can’t recall it right now. If so, you have retention, but you can’t retrieve the information 3. You know it: Sacramento o Retrieval: Getting Information Out § Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store o Studying Memory – memory refers to the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills PSYC 1301 Auug30,,2016 Lecture Notes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'