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Week 1 Notes

by: Kami Mabe

Week 1 Notes Bio 2110k

Kami Mabe
GPA 3.54
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About this Document

These notes summarize the information from Chapter 1
Human anatomy & physiology
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Biology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kami Mabe on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2110k at Georgia State University taught by Borek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human anatomy & physiology in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
 Anatomy Vs. Physiology   Anatomy studies structure and form of body  Physiology studies how the body works  They are interconnected to make understanding the body a little easier  Anatomy   There are several types of Anatomy   Microscopic  Which examines parts that cannot be observed by the naked eye  Two main divisions  Cytology: The study of body cells and structure  Histology: The study of tissues  Gross   Examines structures visible to the naked eye  Dissection is used for examination   Systemic   Examines the anatomy of each body system  Regional   Examines structures in a particular region  Surface  Examines on anatomic markings and internal body structures  Comparative   Focuses on similarities and differences in anatomy of different  species  Embryology   Examines changes from conception to birth  Physiology   Focus on molecular level or cellular level   Cardiovascular  Functioning of the blood vessels, blood, and heart  Neurophysiology  Functioning of nerves and nervous system organs  Respiratory Physiology   Functioning of respiratory organs  Reproductive   Functioning of reproductive hormones and reproductive cycle   Pathophysiology  Relationship between function of organ system and disease or  injury to system  There are properties that all organism share  Grow and Develop  Metabolism  Responsiveness  Regulation  Reproduce   Levels of Organization of the Body  Chemical   Cellular  Tissue  Organ  Organ System   Organismal  Eleven Organ Systems  Integumentry   Urinary  Nervous   Cardiovascular  Female Reproductive  Male Reproductive  Lymphatic   Skeletal  Muscular  Endocrine  Respiratory  Digestive  Anatomic Position   Upright stance  Feet parallel and flat on floor  Upper limbs at sides of body  Palms face forward  Head is level and eyes look forward  Sections and Planes  Section  Slice or cut to expose insides  Plane   Imaginary flat surface passing through body  Three major ones  Coronal  Vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior  Transverse  Horizontal plane that divides body into superior and inferior   Midsagittal  Vertical plane that divides body into EQUAL left and right  halves  Sagittal: divides body into left and right but not equally  Oblique: Plane that passes through at an angle  Cavities and Membranes  Posterior Aspect  Contains cavities that are encased in bone   Divided into cranial and vertebral cavities  Cranial: bones of the cranium  Vertebral: bones of the vertebral column  Ventral  Does not fully encase organs in bone  Divided into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities  Lined with Serous membrane  Serous Membranes  Two layers  Parietal  Lines internal surface of body wall  Visceral   Covers the external surface of organs  Secrete Serous fluid which acts as a lubricant  Mediatinum   Median space in thoracic cavity  Contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and blood vessels  Pericardium  Serous membrane divided into two layers   Parietal pericardium  Forms sac around the heart  Visceral pericardium  Surface that forms heart’s external surface  Pleura   Lungs separated into a two­layered serous membrane  Parietal pleura  Layer that lines internal surface of thoracic wall  Visceral pleura  Covers the external surface of lungs  Peritoneum   Two­layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity   Parietal Peritoneum  The outer layer that lines the internal walls of abdominopelvic  cavity  Visceral Peritoneum   The inner layer that covers the external surface of most abdominal  and pelvic organs  Homeostasis   Body’s ability to maintain a relatively stable environment in response to  changing environments or conditions   Uses a homeostatic control system  Three parts to each system   Receptor   Detects change in the body   Control Center   Nervous system or endocrine system that initiates change   Effector   Part that changes the stimulus  Negative Feedback   The result works against the stimulus to eliminate it   Variables are maintained through a set point or normal level  Example  Temperature Regulation through shivering and sweating  Positive Feedback   The result works with the stimulus until an event or climax occurs  Example  Breastfeeding and Contractions 


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