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Chapter 18 Notes

by: Rylee Cripps

Chapter 18 Notes BIOL 1002

Rylee Cripps
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About this Document

One of three chapters that will be be on our first exam - stay tuned for the next two!
General Biology
Steven Pomarico
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rylee Cripps on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1002 at Louisiana State University taught by Steven Pomarico in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Bio Notes Chapter 18 18.1 o Taxonomy – the process of how organisms are arranged/grouped o An inexact process o Before 1970, organisms were grouped by plants vs. animals which was too broad o Bacteria, fungi, and protists were considered plants but some protists were categorized as animals o Aristotle was the first to use the process of taxonomy o The foundation for taxonomy that we use now was based on binomial nomenclature which was developed by Linnaeus in the 1700’s o The organisms are grouped through a hierarchy system o Each category gets divided into smaller and smaller groups which creates that hierarchy o The two lowest categories of the hierarchy are genus and species and those two make up the name of an organism o Ex: Homo sapiens – the first word is always italicized and capitalized o The hierarchy goes: o Domain o Kingdom o Phylum/Division o Class o Order o Family o Genus o Species o Systematics – a process of categorization that uses phylogeny to put the organisms in the correct category – use phylogentic trees to show relationships o Each branch on the tree is a node. A node represents the diversity of that species o Phylogeny – “evolutionary history of an organism” o The history can be supposed from similarities in characteristics or structures in the genetic makeup of the DNA o The grouping is usually based on evolution o If you are using the systematic process, the more categories that two organisms have in common, the closer their phylogeny is o Clades – this group of species includes the ancestral species including its descendants 18.2 Taxonomy began as just a plant vs. animal system, and that was not detailed enough and it failed In 1969, a scientist named Robert Whittaker found a replacement system to group organisms – he came up with 5 Kingdoms to place all organisms in In the 80’s DNA technology improved which made scientists improve the taxonomy system o Now scientists were able to compare singular DNA molecules Each kingdom has defining characteristics that make them different from each other Kingdoms are now the highest level of grouping Kingdoms The five Kingdoms are – Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia Whittaker based what organism goes into which Kingdom by 4 defining characteristics: o Cell Type § Prokaryotic Cells – no internal organelles • Kingdom(s) included: Monera § Eukaryotic Cells – have internal organelles (ex: mitochondria, ribosomes, etc.) • Kingdom(s) included: Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia o Cell Number § Monera, and Protista are unicellular § Plant, Fungi, and Animalia are multicellular o Nutritional Method § Absorption – where the organism breaks down large molecules outside of its body into building block sized molecules and those smaller molecules go in • Kingdom(s) included: Fungi § Photosynthesis – sunlight is the energy source, the organism provides food for itself through mitochondria and chloroplasts (organelles) • Kingdom(s) included: Plantae § Ingestion – breaks molecules down internally • Kingdom(s) included: Animalia § Monera nutritional method – absorption and/or photosynthesis – can sometimes switch between the two § Protista nutritional method – can do photosynthesis, ingestion, or absorption – may can do more than one Kingdoms are subdivided into Phyla or Divisions o Phyla further divides organisms into smaller and smaller groupings which creates an organizational hierarchy Polyphetic – grouping that includes organisms with different direct ancestors o More than one immediate ancestral relationship Monera was eventually split into two different groups: o Eubacteria o Archae-bacteria o Carl Woese came to the realization that the prokaryotic organisms arose very early in the process of evolution creating two different groups since one was older than the other Scientists eventually realized that the kingdoms Protista, plantae, fungi, and animalia were all fairly similar, so they created a higher level in the hierarchy which was a domain – there were three domains (also the work of Carl Woese): o Bacteria – prokaryotic (no kingdoms yet) o Archaea - prokaryotic (no kingdoms yet) o Eukarya – animals, fungi, plants, protists – eukaryotic 18.4 The more biologists research, the more species are discovered We know of about 1.8 million species however, we probably still haven’t discovered 5 to 50 times of that Biodiversity – the great number of species that are on Earth and the different ways that they interact with each other and their environment o Almost every habitat on Earth contains many different species o The interactions balance the Earth o Every species is apart of this interaction in our ecosystem We are now in a situation where the number of species that are being lost, or extinct, is approaching at a critical rate for there to be no catastrophe happening on Earth o When one species goes extinct, it causes changes to other species § Ex: if a algae eating fish goes extinct, that body of water will be engulfed with algae because its not getting eaten causing the water to lose oxygen which would make the other species in that body of water to die off – a ripple effect Loss of a single species could result in a loss of other species Man ultimately causes the loss of species on the planet which could ultimately effect our species


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