Public Relations 3850 Lecture 2 Notes 8/25-30
Public Relations 3850 Lecture 2 Notes 8/25-30 ADPR 3850
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Popular in Public Relations
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Notetaker on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADPR 3850 at University of Georgia taught by Micheal Caccitore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Public Relations 3850 Lecture 2 Notes History of PR: o Ancient Beginnings: The Rosetta Stone (196 BC) Amounts to a press release of pharaoh (Ptolemy V) accomplishments Julius Caesar (~60 BC) Threw parades as a part of a campaign to fulfill political ambitions The Church (~11 Century) Enlisting followers in the name of penance or forgiveness o Colonial America (16 th– 18 thCenturies): PR as a means to promote settlement Struggle for independence Ex: Boston Tea Party: “The greatest and best- known publicity stunt of all time” Propaganda used to galvanize support for the Revolutionary movement o Sam Adams: PR Specialist: Recognized power of the pen o Used writing as a means of communicating about the importance of independence, and unity, and about the injustice of the colonies Recognized the power of special events and symbols o He was behind the Boston Tea Party and understood the emotions such an event might arouse Used slogans o “No taxation without representation” Used press releases and news leaks o Wrote an account of the Boston Tea Party before the event had even occurred o Paul Revere delivered the account to newspapers as soon as the even occurred o Got news of battles through press leaks Objectives: 1. Justify the cause 2. Promote advantages 3. Arouse the masses 4. Neutralize opponents 5. Phrase issues clearly o The Age of the Press Agent (1800s): The age of hype: Davy Crockett, Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley Press agent tactics The master of the pseudoevent: o P.T. Barnum (understood how to use PR to be successful) Used ticket giveaways and opinion leaders to ensure event success Press Agentry: P.T. Barnum, Master of the Pseudo Event Joice Heth Tom Thumb Jenny Lind “Jumbo” circus elephants o PR Grows as America Grows: PR was pivotal in the early growth of America Settling the American West Railroad promotion techniques: o Free tickets to journalists o Published brochures about fertility of land, etc. o The Rise of Politics: Political beginnings: John Beckley and Thomas Jefferson Amos Kendall and Andrew Jackson Teddy Roosevelt Etc. All the President’s Men: o Thomas Jefferson and John Beckley: Beckley: Jefferson’s “eyes and ears” for public opinion Jefferson rarely wrote himself, but urged others, including John Beckley to publicly counter the federalists in the press Jefferson urged Madison to attack the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, writing: “for God’s sake, my dear sir, take up your pen, select the most striking heresies, and cut him to pieces [sic] in the face of the public” o Amos Kendall: President Jackson’s “Thinking Machine” A member of Andrew Jackson’s “kitchen cabinet” Jackson was portrayed as a rugged frontiersman who worked for the people He spoke ruggedly as well, so he dictated his ideas to Kendall, who made them more palatable Kendall was “the President’s thinking machine, and his writing machine – ay, and his lying machine… He was chief overseer, chief reporter […] scribe, accountant general, man of all work – nothing was done without the air of his diabolical genius” o Teddy Roosevelt: Changed government through PR Often used informal chats with reporters to anonymously get his ideas into the press Always issues press releases on Sunday in order to capture Monday morning headlines Understanding the importance of press and positive relationships with the press, he created the first White House press office o Woodrow Wilson and George Creel: Woodrow Wilson established the “Committee on Public Information” in 1917, on which George Creel served Committee was charged with changing anti-war attitudes as U.S. was entering WWI The Creel Committee: Mailed out 6,000 news releases Generated 20,000 columns of newsprint each week Published an official daily with a circulation of 118,000 Sponsored 75,000 speakers in small towns of America Established a foreign language division that monitored foreign language newspapers and translated foreign documents Developed exhibits, films, and posters that traveled the country Creel and his committee regulated the press to control war coverage He asked the newspapers seek approval before printing news that he categorized as “dangerous” o Ex: information about military maneuvers, threats to the president, questionable news that involved technical inventions and rumors, etc. Wilson also hired Creel to sell war bonds, enlist soldiers, and to raise millions of dollars for welfare through the Red Cross, resulting in fundraising becoming a successful element of PR After the war, an optimistic belief in the power of mass communication emerged o Franklin D. Roosevelt: Used radio speeches to convey warmth, personality and nonpartisanship Introduced and continued “fireside chats” on advice of pollsters Louis M. Howe: His PR advisor Controlled FDR’s image Carl Byoir: Important figure in the campaign to fight infantile paralysis put forth by Roosevelt o Byoir designed fundraising events to make news (FDR Birthday Ball) and raise money o Byoir personally called every newspaper publisher in the U.S. and asked him to nominate a local FDR Birthday Ball chairman (a tactic United Way has continued) o “Dance so that a child may walk” became the slogan o Major American families all attended (Vanderbilts, etc.) and event raised $1 million dollars o Harry Truman and Arthur Page: Arthur Page (VP of Marketing at AT&T) wrote President Truman’s announcement to the world of the dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan The announcement was originally tasked to William Laurence of the NY Times, but he struggled at properly capturing a Presidential voice Arthur Page: The Page Principles of PR Management: Tell the truth o Be forthright with information by letting the public know what’s happening o Provide an accurate picture of the company’s character, ideals and practices Prove it with action o Public perception is determined more so by what a person or organization does and less so by what they say Listen to the customer o You must stay on top of what the public wants and needs o Always keep top decision-makers (and employees) informed about public reaction to company products, policies, practices, etc. Manage for tomorrow o Anticipate public reaction and eliminate practices that create difficulties o Generate goodwill Conduct PR as if the whole company depends on it o Corporate relations is a management function o No corporate strategy should be implemented without first considering public impact Realize a company’s true character is expressed by its people o Every employee – active or retired – is involved with PR Remain calm, patient and good-humored o Lay the groundwork for PR miracles with consistent and reasoned attention to information and contacts o Cool heads communicate best during a crisis situation o Jim Hagerty: Advisor to Dwight Eisenhower Jim Hagerty served as Press Secretary for the entirety of Eisenhower’s time as President Instrumental in Eisenhower’s television ads (first televised political ads) that depicted Eisenhower in a Q&A session with normal citizens Eisenhower’s responses were actually taped separately, as were the “citizen” questions Eisenhower won over Stevenson, partly because he had approximately $5m to Stevenson’s $100k to spend on advertising and PR activities Muckraking Journalists and PR in Activism: o Muckrakers: Ida Tarbell Lincoln Steffes Upton Sinclair o Activists: Abolitionists Women’s right advocates Prohibitionists o The growth of newspapers and the age of muckraking journalists: Muckrakers were named by Teddy Roosevelt after the character in the novel “Pilgrim’s Progress”: “The man with the muckrake, who did not look up to see the celestial crown but continue to rake the fifth.” This type of journalism became very popular as it: Generated public response Created follow-up work as subjects of investigation often responded to the journalist claims Ida Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company; McClure’s magazine, 1902) This piece kicked off the era of muckraking journalism and using the press to expose wrongdoings Revealed the unfair business practices of John D. Rockefeller to squeeze out competitors The articles put Rockefeller on the defensive and he called in the help of Ivy Lee Lincoln Steffens wrote a series titled “The Shame of the Cities,” which documented corrupt government practices in U.S. cities Ray Stannard Baker wrote about labor problems, including child labor and the economic status of African Americans Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906 Conveyed plight of immigrant workers in Chicago’s packing houses and documented unsanitary conditions within Led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 that regulated activities of manufacturers Fight for your right to freedom… o Abolitionists used: Public lectures and heavy reliance on moral arguments Political lobbying Fund-raising activities (National Anti-Slavery Bazaar) to fund newspapers and other anti-slavery publications, including reading materials for children Publication of slave narratives to build moral arguments against salvery …Your right to vote… o Women’s Suffrage: Used traditional lobbying tactics like petitions and organized face-to-face meeting where they targeted their messages to politicians Held parades and public speaking events that challenged notions of how women should behave in public Picketed the White House and garnered media attention through arrests …And the right not to party? o Prohibition: Political and religious groups used lobbying and messaging tactics to bring about Prohibition in 1920 Prohibitionists appealed to nativist ideas about America, arguing saloons where were immigrants corrupted politics Meanwhile, ‘wets’ (opposed to prohibition) failed to take the campaign seriously before it was too late Eventually repealed due largely to reasons of crime and the economy Modern PR Comes of Age: o Henry Ford: Positioning publicity always goes to those who do something first Accessibility: organizations must always be accessible to the press; no subject was off limits with Ford The First PR Counselor; Ivy Lee: o Georgia roots o Founded Parker and Lee in 1904 o “Declaration of Principles” The birth of modern PR Principles that he shared with the media to counter rising hostility toward PR o Largely responsible for the popularity of the press release o Ivy Lee’s contributions: 1. Promoting the idea that business and industry should align with public interests 2. Ensuring the support of top management 3. Maintaining open communication with journalists 4. Humanizing business and making it relevant to workers, community, consumers The Father of Modern PR; Edward L. Bernays: o A Broadway press agent before WWI o Joined the Creel Commission during the War o Opened his agency with his wife Doris Fleishman in 1919 o The nephew of Sigmund Freud and a great believer in the use of psychology in forming public opinion o In 1923, he published Crystallizing Public Opinion, which laid down the rationale for PR as a function of management and introduced the concept of two-way PR Advocated a research-based approach that involved accepting feedback from target audiences for mutually beneficial communication The First In-House PR; Westinghouse: o Worked to promote alternative current (AC) over Edison’s direct current (DC) o Edison employed scare tactics to direct people away from Westinghouse’s AC Edison published a booklet outlining the dangers of AC and the names of people killed by AC electrocution o Westinghouse disputed such assertions and published a booklet, Safety of the Alternating System of Electrical Distribution in October 1889 o Westinghouse system eventually won out The First PR Firm; The Publicity Bureau: o Established in 1900 by George Michaelis o First client: Harvard University o 1906: began work for our nation’s railroads to oppose government regulation Railroad campaign failed and bureau went out of business A Brief History of PR; PR Expands in Post-War America: o Rapid growth in all areas of PR o Growth followed the development of mass media o Growth was aided by evolving research methodologies and techniques Four Models of PR: 1. Press Agentry/publicity: One-way communication Typically through mass media Oftentimes exaggerated or otherwise distorted information for solely advocacy purposes Not research-based P.T. Barnum then Sports, theater, music and film today 2. Public information: One-way communication Typically through mass media Not necessarily advocacy-based, but part of journalistic ideal of accuracy and completeness of information Involves some fact-finding research Ivy Lee then Government and non-profits now 3. Two-way asymmetric: Two-way communication through scientific persuasion techniques Help the communicator better understand the audience for persuasive purposes Research used to plan strategies and evaluate those strategies Edward L. Bernays then Marketing and advertising firms today 4. Two-way symmetric Two-way communication for mutual understandings Formative research used to understand public perceptions of the organization Evaluative research to understand how PR tactics impacted audience understanding Edward L. Bernays then Educators and professional leaders today o o
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