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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Michela Spicer

Chapter 2 Notes BSC 108

Michela Spicer

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About this Document

These notes cover what was explained regarding chapter 2 in the textbook.
Intro to Biology Non-Maj
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology Non-Maj in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
Elements & Atoms  Element- substance which cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions  92 naturally occurring elements (103 total)  Atom is the smallest unit of an element that has all its properties Elements in Organisms  Most common oH- Hydrogen oC- Carbon oN- Nitrogen oO- Oxygen oP- Phosphorus oS- Sulfur  Others oNa- Sodium oK- Potassium oFe- Iron oMg- Magnesium oCa- Calcium oCl- Chlorine  Carbon: 18.5%  Oxygen: 65%  Hydrogen: 9.5%  Nitrogen: 3.3% Trace elements are essential for life  An iodine deficiency causes goiter  Fluoride in the water oThere has been a sharp decline in tooth decay in the last few decades  Fluoride-containing chemicals have been added to drinking water and dental products  The use of fluoride in drinking water illustrates the point that organisms are chemical systems Some elements are harmful to life  Ex: Cadmium oHas been found in some children’s trinkets oA known carcinogen Subatomic Particles in Atoms  Protons- positively charged  Neutron- no charge  Electron- negatively charged Characteristics of Atoms  Protons and neutrons in nucleus  Electrons orbit, may occupy different energy levels  Elements differ in the number of subatomic particles in their atoms o The number of protons (the atomic number) determines which element it is o An atom’s mass number (often called atomic weight)= the number of protons + neutrons o In a neutral atom the # of electrons = the # of protons Isotopes of an element contain different number of neutrons  Hydrogen oAtomic number never changes (always 1) oAtomic weight can either be 1, 2, or 3  Carbon oAtomic number never changes (always 6) oAtomic weight can either be 12, 13, or 14 Radioactive Isotopes  The nucleus decays, giving off particles and energy The Process of Science: Can Alzheimer’s Disease be detected early?  Radioactive isotopes have many uses in research and medicine oExample: PET scans oUsed in an attempt to diagnose Alzheimer’s Electrons are in orbitals in different energy levels  Each orbital (shell) has a maximum of 2 electrons  The first energy level has 1 orbital o2 electrons in 1 energy level  The second energy level has 4 orbitals nd oIf all orbitals are filled then total of 8 electrons in energy level  First shell- max of 2  Second shell- max of 8  Third shell- max of 8 Energy  Potential energy- stored energy oPotential energy is stored in the bonds that hold atoms together  Kinetic energy- doing work/energy of motion oWhen electrons move to a lower energy level energy is released o Kinetic energy is released when bonds that hold atoms together are broken Types of bonds that form between atoms  Ionic bonds: attraction between + and – ions (medium strength) o2Na + Cl2  2Na+Cl- (not added together) o Na is positive because it loses an electron, Cl is negative because it gains an electron  Covalent bonds: sharing electrons between atoms (strongest bonds) oHydrogen and Oxygen combine to form water o Covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons o Single bonds: sharing 1 pair of electrons  H-O-H  -C-C-C- oDouble bonds: sharing 2 pairs of electrons  -C=C-  Hydrogen bonds: unequal sharing of electrons (weakest bond) o In the case of water, electrons of hydrogen spend more time near the oxygen atom o Bond is between droplets of waters o Important in biological molecules Ions: atoms that have gained or lost an electron Properties of Water  High heat of vaporization o As water evaporates, it cools organisms- sweating, panting, transpiration  Ice Formation o When water freezes, it expands & floats due to the formation of a crystalline structure oImportant to aquatic organisms  Cohesion and adhesion oCohesion: attraction between like molecules (other water molecules) o Adhesion: attraction between different molecules (cellular part of tree)  High Polarity oWater is a polar molecule oUnequal charge distribution oElectrons spend more time around O than H o Water molecules from Hydrogen bonds with one another and with other molecules o H bonds are weak; constantly broken and reformed  Solvent o Solution: a liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances (salt water) oSolvent: the dissolving agent of a solution (water) oSolute: the substance that is dissolved (salt)  Water is the primary solvent in cells  Many of the chemicals and nutrients of an organism are dissolved oThese make up the cytoplasm of the cell  Not everything will dissolve in water  Only those substances that are ionic or polar will dissolve readily in water  Hydrophilic: water loving (polar)  Hydrophobic: a substance that is nonpolar and will not dissolve readily in water (oils and fats) Water can ionize +¿ −¿¿  H2O  H + OH +¿ −¿  In pure water [ H ¿ = [ OH ¿ ] +¿ −¿ oIf [ H¿ ] > [ OH ¿ ], then acid +¿ −¿ oIf [ H¿ ] < [ OH ¿ ], then basic  Anything less than 7 on the scale is considered acidic  Anything above 7 on the scale is considered basic pH  Changes in pH of body fluids can affect oAffect how molecules are transported across membranes oAffect how rapidly chemical reactions take place oAffect the shape of proteins Acid Rain  SO & NO dissolve in water to form sulfuric & nitric acids 3 2  Effects are severe in areas downwind of large power plants where there are few natural buffers in soil Effects of Acid Rain  Lowers pH of lakes, streams, soils thus can kill organisms directly  Dissolves toxic metals such as aluminum which contaminate water systems thus killing organisms indirectly


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