New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Kyla Notetaker


Kyla Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
for, class
25 ?




Popular in

Popular in Department

This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyla Notetaker on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Youngstown State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


Reviews for Econ2602


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/30/16
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE st Sustainability for the 21 Century Unit 2- Science and the Environment Chapter 4- Physics and Astronomy Students note: In class the missing terms will be revealed. Ma▯er Ma▯er can exist in three physical states: solids, liquids, and gases. •  Ma▯er has physical characteris▯cs, which are important in discussions of our planet’s environment –  mass (amount of ma▯er), –  weight (force from gravity), –  volume (space occupied), –  _______ (mass per unit volume), –  dimensions (size measurements), –  strengths—________ (resistance to being pulled apart), compressive (resistance to being crushed), shear (resistance to being twisted), –  color—___ (part of the visible light spectrum, e.g., blue, red, green), abili▯es to store and transmit energy. ntensity of the color), and •  Environmental science does not need to consider an▯ma▯er, which seems not to exist on or affect our environment on Earth. 3 Atoms •  Atoms and their subatomic par▯cles are the smallest building blocks of the universe. •  The number and kind of _________ par▯cles in each atom (protons, neutrons, and electrons) determine their iden▯ty and __________. •  For example, helium has two protons, two neutrons, and two electrons. 4 Elements •  There are ninety different naturally-occurring elements, ranging from hydrogen to uranium, which are shown on a periodic table of elements, from atomic numbers 1 through 92. •  The two extra elements in this range (__________ and __________) have no stable isotopes, and therefore are not considered naturally occurring. •  Examples of other elements are iron, nitrogen, lead, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon. •  The periodic table also contains more than a dozen elements that have been ar▯ficially produced. 5 Atomic Nucleus •  Protons –  The proton has a posi▯ve charge and a unit mass, and resides in the nucleus of the atom. All atoms of each element have a fixed number of protons—for example: ____ 26, hydrogen 1________7, lead 82, sulfur 16, oxygen 8, and carbon 6—in each of their nuclei. •  Neutrons –  The nucleus of the atom of any of the elements can have one or more addi▯onal par▯cles, called neutrons. The neutron has a neutral charge (no charge at all) and a unit mass, and also resides in the nucleus of the atom. The number of neutrons in the nucleus does not change the atom into another element but adds weight or mass to the atom. •  Naturally-occurring hydrogen is the only element that can have no neutrons. When an element can exist in nature with a varying number of neutrons it neutrons in addi▯on to its one proton, which forms isotopes of hydrogen called _________ and ________, respec▯vely. •  Carbon has six protons and six, seven, or eight neutrons. 6 Electrons •  Electrons –  Surrounding the nucleus. –  Found in groups in so-called electron ______ of successively greater energy states and number at greater distances from the nucleus. –  Nega▯ve charge and hardly any weight at all. –  In an electrically neutral atom, the number of electrons equals the number of _______. –  Net charge—posi▯ve when it loses electrons and nega▯ve when it gains electrons. Then it is called an ion. –  Can be shared or lost to other ions causing the resul▯ng electrical charge to bind the atoms together forming compounds. Each unit of the _________ is a ________. 7 Energy •  Energy is the ability to do work. •  Suppliers of Energy: –  Most of our energy comes and came from the thermonuclear reac▯ons in the Sun, the ____ of our solar system. –  Some energy on Earth is also provided by mineral _____________ within the interior of the Earth (fuel for volcanoes and crustal plate movements). Man- made nuclear fission and ______ can also harness energy from atoms. –  Gravita▯onal forces can deliver energy by harnessing the mo▯on of ▯des, waves, streams, and currents. •  The Sun has been sending energy to the Earth star▯ng more than 4 billion years ago and will con▯nue to do this for another 5 _______ years, at least. •  We owe our existence to the flow of this energy through the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. 8 Poten▯al vs. Kine▯c Energy •  Poten▯al Energy –  Energy __ ____ •  Mass (boulder) on the mountain ready to roll down by the force of gravity •  has the poten▯al to crash and erode the mountainside and break up into smaller pieces un▯l it comes to rest at the base of the slope. •  Kine▯c Energy –  Energy in mo▯on •  mass __ ______ •  poten▯al energy is transformed into kine▯c energy •  The work in moving the boulder down the mountain (by the force of gravity) • the surrounding air—produces ____ that is dissipated during its descent. 9 Entropy •  Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. •  Unfortunately, the universe has a finite amount of energy. So, with each transforma▯on, energy becomes less able to be ______. This property of energy is called entropy. •  Fric▯onal forces produce heat that is dissipated. –  If you use fuel to accelerate your automobile and then apply the brakes, the stopping of the car produces heat in the brake linings of the wheels that __________ into the atmosphere. – you could boil water for tea—but that is probably not in ngs, your plans. 10 Original Source of Energy •  What was the original source of all this energy? Astrophysicists theorize that energy was created during the Big Bang, at the forma▯on of the universe more than __ billion years ago. •  Since then, energy has been used and heat has been __________ •  There will be enough energy to last many life▯mes. What we are working on is efficient, economical, sustainable, and environmentally friendly ways of tapping the energy provided to us by the Sun, the Earth’s ________, and gravita▯onal forces between the Earth and other bodies in our solar system. 11 Solar Energy - Photosynthesis Photosynthesis: –  plants take water and carbon dioxide and convert them chemically into carbohydrates and oxygen with the help of solar radia▯on and a green ________ called chlorophyll. •  The energy of this transforma▯on is stored in the ________ _____ of the carbohydrate, glucose, in the ▯ssues of plants and animals (another example of _________ energy). •  When we eat carbohydrates or ▯ssues from animals that have eaten the carbohydrates together with breathing the oxygen, we break down the carbohydrates and change them back into carbon dioxide and water and release the energy from the chemical bonds —a process called ___________. –  We use this energy for growth, internal bodily func▯ons, and ac▯vity. –  As we use this energy, we transform the poten▯al energy we store in our bodies to kine▯c energy to perform life’s ac▯vi▯es. 12 Fossilized Solar Energy •  Stored energy containing products derived from excess plant and animal ▯ssues into fossil fuel deposits (wood, plant wastes, peat, coal, oil, and natural gas) (another example of _________ energy). •  We have extracted these fuels and con▯nue to deplete the supply of those fuels that are ______________. •  Coal, oil, and natural gas are ______________ because it would take millions of years for Nature to form them again. 13 Indirect Energy from the Sun •  Unequal hea▯ng of the Earth’s surface, indirectly transfers some of the Sun’s _______ energy to the atmosphere, where warm, ______ air currents and cool, _______ air currents form circula▯on cells. •  These circula▯on cells power the weather systems, wind currents, and most of the ocean currents and waves, and effect evapora▯on and global warming and cooling. 14 Gravita▯onal A▯rac▯on •  The mass of the Moon and the Sun deliver energy to the planet by gravita▯onal a▯rac▯on, producing Earth waves called _____. •  Gravity also pulls down stream water that was li▯ed by evapora▯on through the __________ _____. 15 Nuclear Energy •  There is energy stored in the nucleus of atoms. •  Humans have learned to make certain elements unstable by __________ them with neutrons. – The nucleus becomes unstable and it changes. – In the process it can give off excess, stored energy, and addi▯onal neutrons. – When a cri▯cal mass is present these neutrons in turn can cause a _____ ________ producing many of the resul▯ng unstable elements to give off energy. – The result is a massive release of energy. 16 Energy Crisis? • With all these sources of energy, you might ask, why is there an energy crisis? • We hope you can answer this ques▯on during this semester. The Sun •  Distance to Earth: ~93 million mi (150 x ___ km). •  Electromagne▯c waves travel at ~186,000 mi/s (~300,000 km/s)- ~8 _______ of travel to Earth •  __% of incoming radia▯on is absorbed by plants •  Energizes and heats the atmosphere, oceans, and hydrologic cycle, and man-made collectors of direct solar radia▯on. •  Gravita▯onal pull contributes to ▯des. •  Sustainable supply of energy (next 5 billion yrs) 18 Our Moon •  Orbits the Earth every ______ days and is approximately 225,000 miles (363,000 km) from the Earth. Effects? – __________ – Gravita▯onal a▯rac▯on on near-shore waters and its resul▯ng ▯dal effects. •  High ▯de and low ▯de influence shipping, the life of marine organisms in the ▯dal zone, salinity of the water at the mouths of streams emptying into the ocean, power genera▯on using ▯dal power plants. electrical 19 Other Bodies in Space •  _________ (most disintegrate in the Mesosphere) •  ______ (chunks of ice that, if they fall to Earth, can add small amounts of water to the hydrologic cycle. 20 Forms of Energy •  Mechanical energy: directly moves objects, •  Heat energy: molecular __________ (includes sound) •  Phase-change energy: gives off energy when compounds change phases (gas to liquid to solid) •  Electrical energy: flow of _________ •  Electromagne▯c energy: waves and bundles of energy transmi▯ed in a ______ •  Chemical energy: energy in the bonds of molecules 21 Transforming Energy •  For example, to generate electrical energy to store in ba▯eries, we might burn fossil fuel (releasing ________ energy), to heat water ( ____ energy), to create steam (________________), to get electrons moving in the generator coils (_________ energy), and to charge ba▯eries (________ energy). •  That electrical energy generated could also run furnaces (heat energy), power electrical tools (mechanical energy), and light up homes or run computers (electromagne▯c energy). •  _______ is present at every energy transforma▯on, so it is wise to capture and use the dissipated heat before it is rendered unusable. 22


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.