Water and Body Fluids
Water and Body Fluids NHM 361
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
WATER AND BODY FLUIDS Lecture 4 and 5 Three Basic Processes in urine formation Glomerular filtration o where the blood is filtered by the nephron by the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule Tubular reabsorption o Materials that need to be in the blood are reabsorbed into the blood stream through osmosis and with carrier mediated transport o Renal threshold the maximum amount of solute that can be transported using carrier mediated transport o After this point glucose, blood proteins, ketone bodies and bile among other things should not be in the filtrate Tubular Secretion o Removal of waste through renal tubule to be excreted in urine o Hydrogen, Potassium and other selected solutes o When worrying about renal failure the kidneys fail to properly secrete solutes so things like potassium intake need to be closely monitored Fluid Balance Hypothalamus has the thirst center which regulates fluid intake Vasopressin/ Antidiuretic hormone reduce the amount of fluid lost in the urine o ADH released when the body has higher demand for water and creates more concentrated urine o Alcohol inhibits ADH Taking apart electrolytes Primary extracellular ions are Na+(cation) and Cl(anion) 2 Primary intracellular ions are K+(cation) and HPO (4nion) Hypoprefix meaning low Hyper prefix meaning high Natpertaining to sodium Kal pertaining to potassium Phos pertaining to phosphate Electrolyte Balance Aldosterone stimulates sodium reabsorption and prevents excessive loss of sodium o Helps maintain the small acceptable range of sodium in the blood o Reabsorption of sodium causes excretion of potassium Acid/Base Balance Acids are proton DONORS Bases are proton ACCEPTORS Blood has a narrow pH range in which life can be sustained of 7.357.45 o Alkalosis pH too high in blood Respiratory too much CO2 expulsion Metabolic too much acid is lost o Acidosis pH too low in blood Respiratory too much CO2 retention Metabolic too much acid bicarbonate loss Buffers help maintain narrow pH goal and avoid pH fluctuation o Bicarbonate is the most important H 2O 3H + HCO 3 Carbonic acid Hydrogen ions and bicarbonate Used to avoid excess CO 2n the blood (acidosis) Acidic blood is neutralized with secretion of hydrogen ions and alkaline blood is neutralized with bicarbonate o Phosphate and plasma proteins act as buffers as well
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