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Water and Body Fluids

by: Vanessa Notetaker

Water and Body Fluids NHM 361

Vanessa Notetaker
GPA 3.71

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About this Document

These are key notes that will include key concepts that will be on the quiz on 8/31
Nutritional Biochemistry
Amy Cameron Ellis
Class Notes
Water, homeostasis, kidneys, Nutritional, biochemistry
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
WATER AND BODY FLUIDS Lecture 4 and 5  Three Basic Processes in urine formation   Glomerular filtration  o where the blood is filtered by the nephron by the glomerulus into the Bowman’s  capsule  Tubular reabsorption o Materials that need to be in the blood are reabsorbed into the blood stream  through osmosis and with carrier mediated transport o Renal threshold­ the maximum amount of solute that can be transported using  carrier mediated transport o After this point glucose, blood proteins, ketone bodies and bile among other  things should not be in the filtrate Tubular Secretion  o Removal of waste through renal tubule to be excreted in urine  o Hydrogen, Potassium and other selected solutes  o When worrying about renal failure the kidneys fail to properly secrete solutes so  things like potassium intake need to be closely monitored Fluid Balance  Hypothalamus has the thirst center which regulates fluid intake   Vasopressin/ Anti­diuretic hormone­ reduce the amount of fluid lost in the urine o ADH released when the body has higher demand for water and creates more  concentrated urine  o Alcohol inhibits ADH Taking apart electrolytes  Primary extracellular ions are Na+(cation) and Cl­(anion) 2­  Primary intracellular ions are K+(cation) and HPO (4nion)  Hypo­prefix meaning low   Hyper­ prefix meaning high  Nat­pertaining to sodium  Kal­ pertaining to potassium   Phos­ pertaining to phosphate  Electrolyte Balance  Aldosterone stimulates sodium reabsorption and prevents excessive loss of sodium  o Helps maintain the small acceptable range of sodium in the blood o Reabsorption of sodium causes excretion of potassium  Acid/Base Balance   Acids are proton DONORS  Bases are proton ACCEPTORS  Blood has a narrow pH range in which life can be sustained of 7.35­7.45 o Alkalosis­ pH too high in blood  Respiratory­ too much CO2 expulsion  Metabolic­ too much acid is lost o Acidosis­ pH too low in blood  Respiratory­ too much CO2 retention  Metabolic­ too much acid bicarbonate loss   Buffers help maintain narrow pH goal and avoid pH fluctuation  o Bicarbonate is the most important  H 2O 3H + HCO 3­  Carbonic acid Hydrogen ions and bicarbonate  Used to avoid excess CO  2n the blood (acidosis)  Acidic blood is neutralized with secretion of hydrogen ions and alkaline  blood is neutralized with bicarbonate  o Phosphate and plasma proteins act as buffers as well 


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